The procedure of blood transfusion is currentlybecame indispensable, it allows not only to improve the state of health, but also to save the patient's life. The discovery of the fact that human blood can have its own characteristics and not fit everyone for transfusion, came to scientists only at the beginning of the twentieth century. It was found that the blood taken from different people when mixed with serum in some cases was folded into clots.
It is very important to determine compatibility correctlyblood transfusion. This is due to the presence or absence of antigens in its cells. Erythrocytes are similar to containers that are filled with hemoglobin and deliver the oxygen needed by all tissues of the body. And the outer membrane of this container has a certain number of molecules. The set of these molecules is determined genetically. Molecules that determine the blood group are called antigens.
Now we'll look at what's different between each othergroup of blood. If a person has a second blood group (A (II)), this indicates that the antigen A is present in its composition. Accordingly, in the third group (B (III)), the cells carry the antigen B. The blood of the fourth group contains antigens A and B. But the first group (0 (I)) is generally devoid of antigens.
Serum also contains antibodies toantigens, which are not present on erythrocytes. If you mix blood and serum of the first group, then no reaction will occur, because antibodies that are in the serum have nothing to interact with. And if the same serum is mixed with the blood of the second group, then the serum antibodies (anti-A) will collect all the red blood cells in the clots.
The same adhesion reaction can occur if the recipient's and donor's blood compatibility is not determined. This poses a threat to human life.
When a person is transfused with blood compatible with his group, new blood cells are taken for "their own" and calmly circulate through the body.
Let's generalize what blood groups can be transfused to different people:
Accordingly, now find out who can give their blood to people with different groups:
But simple compatibility of blood in groups is not enough. It is also necessary to establish compatibility with the Rh factor.
Approximately fifteen percent of the populationEurope has Rhesus-negative blood. This means that their blood cells, red blood cells, do not have an antigen Rhesus. Therefore, such recipients need to transfuse blood not only compatible in groups, but also Rh-factor, that is, in this case, Rh-negative.
The compatibility of Rhesus factors in futureparents. It is desirable that a man and a woman planning to have a baby have the same Rh factor of blood. Differences in these antigens of the baby and the mother can lead to problems with the health of the child.
A rather serious problem isrhesus-conflict in pregnancy. If the mother has a negative Rh factor, and the child is Rh-positive, then the mother's antibodies can get into the blood of the fetus and damage its Rh-positive blood cells. As a result, severe intrauterine lesions occur and even fetal death.
Problem compatibility of blood during pregnancyis quite relevant at the moment. Determine the group and the Rh factor of blood of both parents is better before conception of the child. So you can protect him and yourself from unnecessary health problems during pregnancy.