The primitive practically defenseless man inancient times there were many dangers. He was forced to defend himself from the attacks of predatory animals, provide themselves with food and shelter from the weather. With the development of thinking, it was understood that he needed tools of labor and defense. Thus, the first choppers, spears, incisors, flakes were created. What is a chop, you ask? In this article, we will try to answer this question.
What is a chop, archaeologists have determined byfinds dating from the Acheulian period (about 1.6 million years ago). By the way, these tools were more advanced than their predecessors. In an earlier period (the Shelian), the tools were shapeless untreated and massive stones with sharp edges. At this stage, their impact and cutting properties were used directly. Later, certain methods and techniques were applied to the stone in order to achieve the desired shape. Archeologists in different parts of the globe have been found crude flakes, with obvious traces of the intervention of human hands. Also, massive cannons were found from a large pebble that had been beaten at one end. Proceeding from the foregoing, it is possible to imagine what a chopper of the Shel period is. Looking at them, it is clear that a man, although ineptly, but tried to break sharp shards from the stone fragments, leaving a sharp edge. Paleoanthropus of the Acheulian era, in turn, more skillfully and accurately struck, separating the thin flakes.
Over time, the shape of the ancient cannons improved. Man learned to achieve the manufacture of straight and sharp instruments. The Achelian manual chopper is a pebble, shackled from two sides to the formation of a point, serving as a massive implement. The untreated part of the stone with a smooth surface opposite the point was the handle, located in the palm for comfortable holding. In contrast to the husks of zigzag blades, which arose with random shocks, the ancient man of the subsequent period had an oval, and often an amygdala, shape.
The first Neanderthal cutter made frompebbles, located in river beds and on the coasts of the seas. The tools with which the chopper was made in ancient times are two stones. One was a hard rock and served as a shock, the other was a future weapon. Shaving pebbles began from a narrower side, creating a sharp end. The first blow formed a depression, which served as the beginning of the subsequent work. Then the person, starting from the created notch, cut off successively small pebble pieces, achieving the necessary shape. In order not to spoil the workpiece, he used a bump. He was attached to the part and struck from above with a solid object. This helped to monitor the direction of the impact and regulate the force. When the desired shape was obtained, the bump was used as a chisel. With its help removed excess layers of stone. In this case, the shock technique was complemented by a squeezing technique. Thanks to this, the chopper acquired a thin and long blade. Such work required increased attention and "inhuman" power. By the way, the scientists found that the Neanderthal man was six times stronger than the modern man. Its capabilities can be compared to the power of a large gorilla.
With the help of a chisel, a primitive man madeand improved new tools such as scrapers and piercings. These tools helped the paleanthrope cut the animal's skin and divide the cooked meat into pieces.
How was the chopper used? What was this for a Neanderthal Paleolithic? This tool was for man not only an instrument of work, but also an instrument of protection. And also replaced many modern tools, without which we can not score a nail. The chopper greatly eased the lives of ancient people. Working with a blunt, then sharp, end, the paleanthropines could grind plants used for food, loosen the earth, looking for edible roots, crushed nuts. This tool, being universal, performed various functions. Thanks to him it was possible to get small game, to make wooden utensils and tools. Attaching a sharp tip to a long stick, they were torn off, cleaned and scraped the bark from the trees, broke off and felled branches.
Relying on the shape of a chop, over time, people created tools such as a hammer and an ax.