Communication is inherent, of course, all livinghigher beings. But still at the level of people it acquires the most perfect forms, while becoming a mediated and conscious speech. There are three aspects to communication: content, means and purpose. There are also different types of communication, but more about this later.
Through communication can be transmitted to one livingthe essence of the other data about their various emotional states (joy, anger, contentment, suffering, sadness, etc.), which indicates the mood of another living being to communicate.
The purpose of communication is that for which peoplethis kind of activity arises. It can be a hidden motivation of another living being to specific, specific actions or a warning about abstention from some action. Also, the objective may be to receive and impart objective knowledge about our world, education and training, clarify and establish business and personal relationships, coordinate common actions of people in their activities, and much more.
Concept and types of communication
Communication is a complicated processnatural interaction of people, depending on many factors. The final results of communication can be either effective or ineffective. It is known that communication has its own methods, types, methods. For these reasons, a classification of communication is made.
Material communication - the subjects engaged in individual activities, actively exchange its products, which, in turn, serve as means of meeting the actual needs for them.
Conditional communication - people exert influence on each other and try to bring each other into a certain mental or physical state.
Motivational communication - its content has a transfer to each other of specific attitudes, motivations or willingness to act in a certain direction.
The activity and cognitive type of communication is connected withvarious kinds of educational or cognitive activity. Biological - this is communication that is necessary for the preservation, maintenance and development of the body. It is directly related to the full satisfaction of the most widespread organic needs. The goals of strengthening and expanding interpersonal contacts, development and establishment of personal growth, interpersonal relations are pursued by social communication.
Types of communication in psychology by means of:direct and indirect, direct and indirect. Immediate - is carried out with the help of natural organs, which are given by nature to a living being: the trunk, head, vocal cords, hands, etc. The indirect one is connected with the direct use of special tools and means for organizing the exchange of information and communication. Direct communication is carried out in personal contacts and with direct perception of each other by communicating people. For example, these are conversations, bodily contacts, communication in cases when the interlocutors see each other and react directly to the actions of the partner. Indirect communication is manifested through intermediaries - other people (for example, negotiations between the two conflicting parties at the interethnic, interstate, family, group levels).
There are some other types of communication that should behighlight: personal and business, target and instrumental. The content of business communication is what people are busy with, and not problems affecting their inner world. Personal communication is mainly concentrated around various psychological problems of the internal character, those needs and interests that intimately and deeply affect the person's personality: the search for the main meaning of life, the internal definition of the attitude towards what is happening around, to a significant person, the resolution of any internal conflicts .
Instrumental is communication that is notan end in itself, not stimulated by an independent need, but one that pursues some other goal, other than getting a banal gratification from this act of communication. Target - is in itself a means of satisfying some specific need, in communication (in this case).
It is very important to distinguish such types of communication among people,both verbal and non-verbal. Verbal requires an obligatory condition - the use of language. Nonverbal is communication through gestures, pantomimics, facial expressions, through direct physical or sensory contacts. These are visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and other images and sensations received from some other person.