The ultimate home growing guide

The ultimate home growing guide

Ultimate Home Growing Guide - Culture on FURFUR
Tomatoes and related crops in your home

Spring finally came into its own (at least in Moscow), nature is about to begin to awaken. Even the most severe members of the club FURFUR probably already missed the greenery, flowers and other vegetation. To see her quickly, it is not necessary to wander into the woods and dig snowdrops. It is better to get close to the nature of the house and grow something pleasant and useful for yourself. Recently, this passion has become increasingly popular: there is no problem to get everything you need to organize something like the gardens of Semiramis right at home. In the network you can find breeding varieties of plants that give a good harvest and adapted for growing at home. And in general, it is a miracle and incomparable pleasure to watch how a leaf appears from a seed, then a sprout, then a whole plant, which ultimately yields a crop.

In this material we have tried to collect recommendations for novice gardeners, which will make it possible to take the first steps in the cultivation of tomatoes and crops close to them at home.

 

 

 

 

Where to grow?

Having decided to grow up such a whimsical and requiring a special microclimate culture, the right decision would be to have a cabinet in which your mini-greenhouse would be located. You can convert your wardrobe by painting it from the inside with white or silver paint or glue it over with foil (so that the lighting is better distributed inside). A more sensible solution would be to purchase a special awning or growbox. Modern models are already equipped with everything necessary to simulate the microclimate, regardless of external conditions. A normal closet for one plant should have the parameters 50 x 50 x 150 cm.

 

 

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Soil or hydroponics

 

The soil

The plant can be grown in different ways: the easiest and most familiar way is to grow in the soil. In the store, you can buy any universal earth with neutral acidity and add volcanic rocks vermiculite and perlite to it (from 30 to 50%).

 

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Hydroponics

If you have some crop growing experience behind your back, you can try a more technologically advanced method - hydroponic.With this method of cultivation, the plant feeds on the roots not in the soil, but in a humid air, water or solid and porous medium, which promotes the respiration of the roots and requires constant watering with a nutrient solution of mineral salts.

 

Every 10 days it is necessary to change the solution and replenish the water with fresh nutrients at any stage of growth.

 

Hydroponic systems
divided into two types

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Advantages of hydroponics

1.Accelerated plant growth.

2.No soil required.

3.Water and fertilizer is saved.

4.The level of nutrition of the plant is controlled.

5.Stable and high yield.

6.From pests and diseases easier to get rid of.

7.No pesticides required.

8.Plants grow healthy.

 

Even today, up to 80% of all vegetables and fruits in Israel are grown in a hydroponic way. The US Army has everything in place to deploy hydroponic field greenhouses for vegetables and greens. And recently, researchers at the University of Arizona have developed a hydroponic system for growing vegetables on the moon, which will produce tomatoes, peanuts, peppers, potatoes and other crops.

 

Types of hydroponic systems

 

 

Wick system

The method is the simplest, but, frankly, not the most effective. Wicks, in which the nutrient solution goes to the roots, have a limited bandwidth. Different substrates can be used in this system — preferably coco-soil (natural coconut fiber) or vermiculite (a rock of volcanic origin).

 

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Floating platform system

The method is different in that the roots of the plant are always immersed in water, which in turn is constantly aerated: the pumps supply air to the solution - as in an aquarium. The system has worked well for growing plants that consume a lot of water.

 

 

Periodic flooding system

Here everything is clear from the name. The system is designed in such a way that the substrate with the roots in it from time to time with the help of a pump is flooded with a nutrient solution. The timer associated with the pump is responsible for this periodicity. As the substrate, you can use the same expanded clay, coconut fiber or vermiculite.

 

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Technique of the nutrient layer

The roots of the plant are placed in a long irrigation canal, where the nutrient solution is supplied with a pump.Flowing through the channel with a thin layer and washing the roots of plants, the nutrient solution returns to the reservoir. Fluid supply can be constant or cyclical (the latter is preferable, but more difficult to implement).

 

 

Drip irrigation system

Pretty simple and popular method of hydroponic cultivation. As the name implies, the nutrient solution goes to the root system of each individual plant drop by drop in small tubes. At the same time, the plant itself is located in the most moisture-intensive substrate (mineral wool, vermiculite).

 

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Aeroponica

Aeroponika is aerobatics. The roots of the plant are fixed in a small amount of substrate in the tank, which receives the nutrient solution in the form of an aerosol or mist. Moisture is supplied continuously or at short intervals so that the roots do not have time to dry.

 

 

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Substrate

What is a substrate? This is what keeps the plant and provides the role of the nutrient medium. Its most important qualities: it must give the roots "breathe", but at the same time be moisture-retaining - keep the maximum amount of nutrient solution - and at the same time not interact with it, that is, not change its composition.It is important to understand that when the irrigation cycles are interrupted, the roots can dry out quickly (especially when using the techniques of the nutrient layer and aeroponics), so it is better to use substrates that better retain moisture: mineral wool, vermiculite, coconut.

 

Most Popular Substrates:

 

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Hydrogel

 

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Coconut Substrate

 

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Sphagnum moss

 

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Expanded clay

 

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Agroperlite

 

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Vermiculite

 

Lighting

An important point when growing plants in the home is the right light. Lighting lamps should be located as close as possible to the tops, but should not touch them, so for convenience it is worthwhile to get lamps with height adjustment so that as plants grow, lift them. It is worth considering that tomatoes prefer lighting, which is dominated by red and blue parts of the spectrum. More precisely, the plants love the blue light in a state of active growth, and red - at the stage of flowering and fruiting. From ordinary incandescent bulbs little sense, and one of the most effective systems of artificial lighting - fluorescent "day" light. It is even better to do everything according to the mind: use metal-halide lamps (MGL or DRI - in the English version - MHL) for the vegetative growth stage, so that plants gain green mass faster,and in the period of flowering and fruiting install sodium lamps (DNaT and DnAZ). So, for our average growbox with an area of ​​50 by 50 centimeters, a 250-watt fluorescent lamp, a 150-watt metal-halide or sodium lamp should suffice. Recently, LED, plasma and induction lamps, which are less heated, are also becoming popular.

 

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Young plants are provided with continuous coverage in the first month of life. Gradually, you need to enter the "night" clock to put them in flowering mode. First you need to turn off the lamp for six hours a day, then add one hour of darkness every day until you come to the 12/12 mode. The last couple of weeks of the flowering period it is recommended to reduce the day for plants to 8/16.

 

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Ventilation

When grown in closed ground will have to take care of artificial ventilation. With the right approach, the cabinet should be fully ventilated every 5 minutes to saturate the plants with carbon dioxide. The second important ventilation function is the removal of excessive heat from the lighting lamps. To do this, channel fans are best suited, which are installed in the hottest place - right in the protective lamp cover.You can get by with two powerful computer coolers, one of which will inject air into the group box and the other will output it. It will not be superfluous to install a domestic fan inside the greenhouse, which will promote air circulation: the plants become stronger and healthier from this.

 

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Seed germination

If you are not stingy and have found selection seeds of good varieties of tomatoes, it is important to germinate them correctly. To begin with, soak them thoroughly - to do this, put them in a glass of water for a few hours. Then take the container, put a piece of damp cloth or gauze into it, spread the seeds on it and cover it with another thin piece of cloth on top. Put the container tightly closed with a lid or wrapped in polyethylene in a dark and warm place for two to three days. When the roots appear from 0.5–1 cm long, they can be planted in mini-pots (the size of a jar of photographic film) with soil (if you grow in the soil) or substrate (if you master the hydroponic method) to a depth of about 1 cm. When the roots fully take these cups, sprouts along with a clod of soil should be carefully transplanted into larger containers.

 

Fertilizer

To make the right nutrient solution, you need to find the right complex fertilizer. Watch carefully for the composition on the label: the three main elements of fertilizer are phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium.

Nitrogen promotes rapid growth, therefore, at the vegetative stage of development, plants must receive more nitrogen and less phosphorus. More phosphorus and less nitrogen are needed during the flowering period. Potassium also strengthens the stems and increases disease resistance, and it is more needed during the flowering stage.

The main difference between hydroponic fertilizer and soil fertilizer is that the first one contains all the essential trace elements that are not included in soil fertilizer (plants take these elements from the soil itself). Also, organic fertilizers for soil rely on the action of bacteria and microorganisms, which break down substances into basic elements, and fertilizers for hydroponics provide the elements already in finished form.

 

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Also in the composition of the fertilizer should
appear such elements
 

 

 

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iron

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boron

 

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zinc

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manganese

 

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copper

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molybdenum

 

Highly recommended: calcium nitrate, potassium monophosphate, magnesium sulfate and potassium sulfate.Without these chemicals, as experienced growers say, a good solution is to mix
will not work.

 

Acidity

It is important to monitor the acidity of both the soil and the nutrient solution. Increased acidity adversely affects the growth of most cultivated plants: for normal development, the pH of the soil can vary in the range from 6.5 to 7.0, and the pH of the nutrient solution should be in the range from 6.0 to 6.3. It is possible to determine the acidity of the soil, either with the help of litmus paper, or using a special device - a pH meter. Slaked lime, ash, ground chalk or eggshell are used to reduce the acidity of the soil, and manure, peat or compost can be used to increase the acidity. Sour fertilizers also include sulfates, superphosphate and others.

 

 

 

Temperature and humidity

For normal plant growth, it is necessary to observe the temperature and humidity, and for this you will have to acquire a thermometer and a hygrometer. The most suitable conditions for growth are 21–27 ° С. The temperature is best measured at several points: at the tops of the plants and in the shade, and then oriented along the middle.When the lamp is off, the temperature should not fall below 16 ° C. We should not forget about moisture in the grow-box - excessive dampness will lead to mold on the greens. Try to stick to 40–50% air humidity with active growth and 25% during the flowering period.

 

In the hydroponic method, the root system should be in a nutrient solution with a temperature in the range of 10 ° C (with the lamps turned off) to 22 ° C (when the light is on).

 

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Watering

When growing plants in the soil, it is not necessary to overdo it with watering - do this when the soil dries out from the surface by about 2–3 cm. A clear sign of excessive watering is the loss of leaves. For irrigation, you need to use water at room temperature - ideally 21 ° C.

 

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Harvesting

Harvesting is the most exciting moment for a gardener. However, each plant variety has its own life cycle of growth and development, so it’s not so easy to count the date of the beginning of flowering and ripening. Inexperienced breeders are ready to try the green fruits of their labor, but it is not recommended to injure the plant before it reaches its peak of maturity. Circumcision of large leaves is appropriate only when they shield the main fruit from the light - if this does not happen, then you should not do this until they are completely dry.Fully mature harvest can be considered somewhere on the 50–60th day after the beginning of flowering. At this point, most large leaves will almost completely turn yellow.

 

 

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Alexander Berkutov

home gardener

 

The root system is rather big, and it requires an appropriately sized container. A suitable option may be a plastic bucket for 12-15 liters. If it is possible to put together a box of 30 liters (for a larger bush), it is even better. The main factor in the cultivation of tomatoes - the area of ​​coverage. When artificially adjusting daylight, the wardrobe is an ideal solution, but with a large number of bushes you need a lot of space, which not every cabinet will provide, so you can organize a living corner where your tomatoes will feel great. It is better to make a screen of dense polyethylene so that the light does not interfere with sleep. In order not to be mistaken with the soil, I advise you to take a neutral pH in the soil, and most importantly clean - without larvae and any living creatures. You can always add fertilizers that change the pH level, but you can’t get rid of parasites. Palm neutral soil laid on the drainage stones - ideal.
With a constrained budget, fluorescent lamps - the very thing: low consumption and low heat generation.Per square meter the optimal solution is four half-meter blue lamps in a vertical position and on top two two-meter lamps of the blue and red spectrum. Crafting is pretty simple. Any student who went to the lessons of labor, cope. The construction market will offer a wide selection of lamps and timers to automatically adjust the daylight hours. In general, ventilation can be hammered: if you don’t use lamps with a large amount of heat, then regular ventilation is enough.
Surprisingly, tomatoes are suitable fertilizers intended for strawberries. At the stage of preparation of the soil, it is enough to sketch a little (in accordance with the instructions) of the fertilizer balls, and then to where the seedlings will be transplanted - after they get a little stronger. Fertilizers and solutions can be prepared by yourself from the fact that it is easy to find in the Garden and Kitchen Garden market. Then for plants just enough care - to water and spray. Without fanaticism and with love. My tomatoes turned out well.

The ultimate home growing guide images, pictures

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  • The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide

    The ultimate home growing guide