F.M. Dostoevsky "Crime and Punishment" wrote in an extremely difficult situation. A major loss in the casino, lack of money and prospects ... This novel was the only salvation from the financial collapse. Surely these circumstances have affected the subject matter of the work, and the position of the author - as far as this can be said in this case. Still, Dostoevsky does not give ratings to his characters, he just tells the story.
F.M. Dostoevsky, "Crime and Punishment" - this is exactly what one of the points of the school program looks like. Tastes of the Ministry of Education do not cease to amaze. Why this novel? After all, this work is clearly not intended for an audience consisting of children aged 15-16. They simply do not understand anything. Not because they were stupid or poorly educated. Just a very specific book. Sincere characterization of the novel "Crime and Punishment", given by the average student, will be categorical. It's boring! And it's pointless. The protagonist for some reason killed an old woman, robbed him, was unable to spend money, then suffered many pages, and in the end - surrendered to the authorities. Well, it's stupid. A fool of some kind, not a hero.
This is how a disciple sees this novel, and,in fact, correctly sees. Because his life experience does not allow you to notice in the book something more, read between the lines. So the child, looking at the picture, sees two dolphins, and the adult person - a naked couple, weaving in embraces. And so, and that's the right thing. Just everything has its time and its place.
For students reading the novel "Crime andpunishment ", the meaning of the title of the book is obvious. Crime - murder, punishment - penal servitude. Just like twice two. To see the double bottom of the work, you need ... not exactly to grow up. Not in the age of business. We need to live, gain experience. Learn to see deeper, farther. Yet Dostoevsky did not write a detective story about an unsuccessful assassin, not the scope of the author.
Dostoevsky's characters can be kind, canbe evil, but they are always alive and whole. These are people who commit ordinary human acts and feel ordinary human emotions. Not supermen, not geniuses, not cardboard villains. Just people. He, like no one, knows how to convey the slightest movement of the character's soul, the subtlest shade of thought. With photographic accuracy draws the personality of the hero, as an experienced fingerprint - fingerprints.
At the same time, Dostoevsky is a bad stylist. He writes heavily and unevenly, even rudely. His novels are never torn to shiny, witty quotations. "Crime and punishment" is in no way a masterpiece in this respect, so it is rather difficult for him to read to a person who is not used to overcoming the resistance of the text. But if you try, if you get used to a specific author's style, if you listen to what the heroes say ... If you read the novel "Crime and Punishment" in this way, the meaning of the title turns out to be quite different.
The depth of the plot is not murder. This is just one of the episodes, albeit very significant. It is not important. The reason why a crime is committed and the events that follow it are important.
So what is this book - Crime and Punishment? The description of the novel will take several lines.
The main character of the book, Raskolnikov, is a personquite curious. A student, a revolutionary, a fiery idealist, he is poor. He has nothing to pay for his studies, his family's life is full of hardship. The sister even decides to marry an unloved, but rich man, in order to provide relatives with livelihood. Raskolnikov realizes that he must do something. To get money.
At the same time, Rodion is convinced that the world is divided intoweak and strong, insignificant and great. And the former exist meaninglessly and uselessly, and the latter are the rulers of the world, on which ordinary, human laws and norms can not spread. Such is the absolutely Nietzschean theory. And, of course, Raskolnikov believes that he himself is insignificant and weak can not be. He is not like that. He is of a different breed.
In the novel "Crime and Punishment" the main thing -it is the conflict of this idea, quite popular in those years, with reality. It builds a plot. Following his idea, Raskolnikov decides to kill a prosperous old woman - in fact she is nobody, unlike the present, conscious of her destiny. And does it.
From the novel, almost do not borrow quotes. "Crime and Punishment" is quite a scant material for fans of aphorisms. But the phrase: "I'm a shivering creature or have the right?" - is familiar to everyone. It is she who is the quintessence of the novel, the essence of the conflict and the plot engine. It has all the salt.
Because, having committed murder, Raskolnikovunderstands that his theory was erroneous. All people are equal, and laws exist for all. Let the old woman be vile and disgusting, let there are people in a thousand, a million times better - murder remains a murder. And he himself is not at all an ideal superman. He "has no right". Raskolnikov expresses this unequivocally to his own conscience.
Here about this the novel "Crime andpunishment". The meaning of the name is much deeper than the usual bondage killing-penal servitude. In his ideas, Raskolnikov rejected moral norms, refuted the very notion of morality. Thus, he separated himself from humanity, claiming the place of God. This was his crime. In self-love and narcissism, in pride. Murder is but an effect.
And punishment is not a prison term. These are the tortures of conscience, this is the collapse of life ideals, it is the realization of the meaninglessness, uselessness of the crime. For this, we needed a moment with not spent money. He did not just kill me, but killed me in vain. He dreamed of making a great, helping the needy - and he could not, because he was too weak. The hero understands that he is not at all what he thought he was. Just an ordinary person, the same as everyone else. A trembling creature. And to live with this further Raskolnikov unbearable.
For Dostoevsky the question of following moralnorms - or the voice of God in the soul - one of the key in creativity. His characters can not be happy beyond this conditionally defined circle. And it's not about religiosity. Dostoevsky, despite the specifics of his personality, and perhaps, thanks to her, believed humanism, morality, a natural property of the human soul. And it is in the Christian, and not in the secular meaning of the word. Pure soul harlot - a through image, which is present in almost all the works of the author. And the holy madman is a type that FM Dostoevsky loves. "Crime and punishment" in this regard is no exception. Crushed into him by the consciousness of reality, Raskolnikov gets help in the person of Sonechka Marmeladova. A poor girl who became a prostitute to help the family.
In fact, Sonia is at the same time an antithesis, andlogical continuation of the image of Raskolnikov. A man who has broken morals for money. But in her case the driving factor was not self-assertion, but altruism. Therefore, unlike the main character, Sonechka kept her mental purity. It is she who helps Raskolnikov survive the crisis, she tells him the idea of repentance as a way to atone for sin. And Raskolnikov really goes with the guilt. Although he does not pity the old woman at all, he did not feel any sympathy or experience. He feels sorry for himself, sorry for his former life, sorry for forever lost self-esteem. And repentance, in fact, is just a way to restore it.
There is one funny phrase in the text. It is pronounced by the investigator, whom the protagonist reproaches for eavesdropping. The policeman is surprised that, in the opinion of Raskolnikov, eavesdropping is dishonorable, and "old ladies on the head than they fell" - is quite worthy. In this - the whole essence of the main character. Such are his ideas about worthy behavior.
This paradoxical view of morality andthe novel "Crime and Punishment" is devoted. The meaning of the name is that this position is criminal in itself, it can not lead to anything but evil. And punishment is not a prison, but an awareness of the fallacy of one's own path.