Sarcoidosis or, as it is also called, a diseaseBénya-Beca-Shaumana is a systemic disease, usually chronic. It is characterized by the formation of specific, non-necrotic granulomas in various tissues of the body (lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and other organs). It does not exclude manifestations of fibrosis in the affected tissues, which, in turn, can lead to a violation of their functions. Sarcoidosis most often affects women under the age of 50, with its prevalence among Scandinavians, African Americans, Irish and Asians. The etiology of this disease, despite many years of research in this field, remains unclear, since none of the theories put forward (the effect of microorganisms, heredity or the environment) can unequivocally answer the question: "What is this mysterious disease - sarcoidosis?" Symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in different ways - in many ways they depend on the tissues of which organ or even the organs are involved in the process of granuloma formation.
In 90% of cases, the disease affects the intrathoraciclymph nodes, as well as lungs and bronchi, this is the so-called "sarcoidosis of the respiratory system." In most cases, it begins asymptomatically, showing up accidentally on the radiograph of the lungs during a physical examination. However, cases of dyspnoea, hard breathing and chest pain are not uncommon.
If we talk about the classification of lung sarcoidosis, then its criterion is the degree of damage to the respiratory system.
Sarcoidosis of the 1st degree is the initial intrathoracic lymphoid-ferruginous form, expressed by an increase in the intrathoracic lymph nodes, usually symmetrically bilateral.
Sarcoidosis of the 2nd degree is a mediastinal-pulmonary form, manifested not only by an increase in the intrathoracic lymph nodes, but also by infiltration of the lung tissue.
Sarcoidosis of the 3rd degree is a pulmonary form, it is characterized by fibrosis of the lung tissue, it is possible the formation of emphysema.
It should be noted that this classification appliesonly to a disease such as pulmonary sarcoidosis. Symptoms of sarcoidosis of other organs may be mild, so the diagnosis of extrapulmonary variant of this disease can cause a number of problems. The only exception is sarcoidosis of the skin, which is manifested by the appearance of specific sarcoid spots, and sarcoidosis iridocyclitis.It is worth noting that only aftercarried out all the necessary studies that exclude other diseases, the doctor makes a diagnosis of "sarcoidosis", the symptoms of which are easier to recognize in the overall picture of the disease. By individual signs, the disease is diagnosed more difficult.
How to treat sarcoidosis?
Medical statistics show that inIn most cases the disease is resolved by itself, therefore, if the organ damage is insignificant, no medication is prescribed. However, for 6-8 months the patient is under constant medical supervision. If the disease is severe, with complications or progression, then a course of steroid or anti-inflammatory drugs is prescribed.