Andrei Dmitrievich Zakharov, who spent his life giving shape to St. Petersburg, is known throughout the world as the author of the Admiralty building. Its importance for Russian architecture can not be overestimated, he defined the direction of development of Russian architecture for a long period.
HELL. Zakharov, the architect, was born 8 August 1761 in St. Petersburg in the family of an admiralty official, an officer in chief. His father, Dmitri Ivanovich Zakharov, received very modest salaries, but was able to raise two sons who were the pride of the Fatherland. The eldest son, Yakov Dmitrievich Zakharov, became an academician, a professor of chemistry and mechanics. The youngest - Andrey Dmitrievich Zakharov - became an outstanding architect. From an early age, his father brought up diligence and curiosity in his sons. He carefully looked at the abilities of children and was able to see their talents. Andreyan was sent to the Academy of Arts at 6 already. In class, he very soon becomes one of the best students. In two years the boy receives his first award for academic success - a book.
After graduating from college, AD Zakharov enters the architectural class of the Academy of Arts. The abilities of the young man help him to quickly achieve success in teaching, the teachers celebrated his spatial vision. He studied with outstanding masters: A.F. Kokorinov, Yu.M. Felten, I.E. Starova. Andrei Dmitrievich Zakharov achieves excellent results in the architectural craft and in 1782 brilliantly graduates from the Academy. It is produced "in the 14 class of artists" and awarded a medal.
During the years of study, Andrei Zakharov collected a full set of medals of the Academy. One of the debut works of the future architect - the project "Country House" - receives a small silver medal of the Academy. This is the highest reward for junior students. In 1780, he is already awarded a large silver medal, and after graduation - a gold medal for the project "Foksala" ("Recreation House") and a trip to Paris "for further success in architecture." At this time AD Zakharov is carried away by the ideas of classicism, strives to translate new ideals into the material.
In 1782, Andrean, along with three classmates, arrives in Paris. Here they begin to attend the class of full-scale drawing. Zakharov learns from the leading French architect JF. Schallgren, as well as under the influence of the most progressive architect of Paris K. Ledoux, powerful monumental and ideal projects of simplicity which fascinated the student from Russia. Schalgren, the author of the famous Arc de Triomphe in Paris, was the brightest representative of French classicism, an innovator and an advanced architect, his ideas organically lay down on the soil of the views of A. Zakharov prepared in the Academy. At this time, his aesthetic concept is formed and the author's method matures, which has yet to be embodied in the structures.
In 1786, AD Zakharov returns to Russia, full of plans and hopes for the future. To show his skills to him in the project of finishing the building of the Academy of Arts, he has several years to lead the repair, completion and alteration of the building, this uncreative and burdensome work greatly tired the architect. Only in 1790 year he was able to transfer the cases for the improvement of the Academy to another architect. Zakharov performs small orders, for example, the project of the Lyubuchi village school. The first notable work of the architect appears in 1791 year, this is a solemn decoration on the occasion of the conclusion of peace with Turkey. In this project Zakharov proved himself not only as a high-class specialist, but also as a patriot. In his work he embodied the idea of Russia's greatness and his pride in Suvorov's feat in taking Ishmael.
Andrei D. Zakharov, whose biography is inextricably linked with St. Petersburg, immediately after returning to his homeland comes to his native Academy in search of work. In 1787, he was admitted to the position of adjunct professor, in 1792 he defended the project and became a professor at the Academy. Zakharov did not leave his pedagogical activity until the end of his life. He turned out to be a talented teacher, over the years he has been able to make a good career, and also to release a lot of worthy students. In particular, under his supervision, A.N. Voronikhin, his pupil was the outstanding Russian architect A.I. Melnikov.
In 1799, Andrei Dmitrievich Zakharov, whose works and projects were noticed by the highest leadership of the country. Pavel the First appoints him chief architect of Gatchina, while retaining the position of professor at the Academy. Here he creates projects for several buildings and structures. At first he began to work on the project of the monastery, but Paul's death prevented this project from being realized. In it, Zakharov wanted to embody the Novgorod-Pskov traditions of temple architecture. Under his leadership in Gatchina, the Lutheran Church is being built, has not survived to this day. He also designs two bridges: Humpbacked and Lion, he finishes two pavilions: "Birdman" and "Farm". The first was built, and the erection of the second stopped the death of Paul.
At the same time Zakharov takes part in the creation of the scientific work "Russian Architecture", which gives him the opportunity to examine in detail the features of national traditions and travel around the country. During this time, he deeply penetrated the foundations of Russian architecture, realized the specifics and power of the Russian landscape and was ready to create major projects.
AD Zakharov developed in his skill, he harmoniously combined a talented architect and an excellent practice-builder. He is invited as an expert in all major projects in St. Petersburg. So he makes a significant contribution to the creation of the Exchange project. In 1804, the architect creates a project for the construction of the embankment of Vasilievsky Island with the restructuring of the building of the Academy of Arts. In it, the architect wanted to embody the best traditions of French architecture with arches and colonnades. The project was highly appreciated by experts and colleagues, but the plan was not implemented, documents and schemes were not preserved. At the same time, Andrei Dmitrievich is working on the plan for the construction of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair, creating a project for the Foundry Workshop for the Academy of Arts.
AD Zakharov, a Russian architect who went down in history as the creator of one of the most important buildings of St. Petersburg - the Admiralty. In 1805, he was appointed the chief architect of the Admiralty department, which in those days was huge and required a lot of buildings. Zakharov created many projects, not all of them were implemented, some buildings were not preserved, but the scale of the work was impressive. He designed for many cities in Russia: Kronstadt, St. Petersburg, Kherson, Revel, Arkhangelsk, the work was very much. Zakharov was very anxious about each project and did not leave any building, sometimes very significant, not a single building, from small office buildings to the main buildings of the Admiralty in Arkhangelsk and Astrakhan. In these projects the talent of Zakharov-city planner was manifested, he defined the appearance of the embankments of many Russian cities. The most significant works were the buildings of the Black Sea Hospital in Kherson, the Cadet Corps in Nikolaev, the project of the Cable Plant in Arkhangelsk.
And yet the main business of Zakharov's life was the project of the main building of the St. Petersburg Admiralty. He created a spectacular, large-scale construction, the length of its facade is 400 meters. The rhythm and symmetry of the facade decorated with sculptures looks majestic and grand. And the tower with the spire and the golden ship sets the vertical, which became the dominant of the urban landscape. The building was the pinnacle of Zakharov's creativity, in this building everything is perfect: from thoughtful functionality to a majestic and harmonious appearance.
Andrei D. Zakharov, whose photos of buildings are adorned today with all textbooks on Russian architecture, has created many projects of different scale in many cities of the country. The most notable works were:
Many of Zakharov's buildings have not survived to this day, but his heritage is appreciated by descendants.
Architect Andrey Dmitrievich Zakharov devoted his entire life to his favorite work. He taught a lot, worked on projects, and did not have time to arrange personal happiness. He spent his free time studying books on mechanics, art, technique, and interested in carpentry. Zakharov suffered heart attacks, but did not attach any importance to this. In the summer of 1811, he fell seriously ill and 8 September died. The Academy of Arts expressed its deepest sorrow at his untimely departure. Unfortunately, the great architect never had time to see completed one of his big projects, many of his works were ahead of time and were not realized.