History is a mysterious and fascinating science, containing many interesting facts and events that can be heroic, comic and tragic at the same time.
As we know, people are doing history, actionswhich are not always clear to the modern man in the street. Why did this or that governor do this and not otherwise? Why did this or that event happen, whose influence is still felt in our life? Not always scientists and archaeologists can give definitive and exhaustive answers to the above questions.
One of such extraordinary and unusual figuresworld history and is Charlemagne (reign of the ruler: 768-814). What kind of person was this ruler? What states did he govern and what could he achieve through his reign? We'll talk about this in this article, and also find out when the proclamation of Charlemagne was made by the Roman emperor and how this event affected the entire future history of mankind.
But first, of course, get acquainted with the king himself, his childhood, youth and youth.
Before you learn the year that Charlemagne was proclaimed emperor, you should find out when this powerful man was born.
It is noteworthy that historians are still arguing aboutthe true date of his birth. In the medieval historical work "The Petawian Annals," written by an anonymous author, it is mentioned that in the year 782 AD the Frankish King Charles was born, and later his younger brother Carloman.
In other, no less reliable sourcestwo other possible dates of the birth of the sovereign are mentioned. According to one report, he died at the age of seventy, while according to other information, it happened two years later. As we see, the historical and archaeological legends concerning the birth of Charlemagne are contradictory. However, it can be assumed that he was born between 742 and 747 years of our era.
The place of birth of the emperor remains unexplained. According to the calculations of many historians, they may be one of the German cities Aachen or Ingelheim, or the French French commune Fiersi.
Before considering in detail the moment of the proclamation of Charlemagne by the emperor, let us learn a little about the childhood of the future ruler.
As it is not surprising, but he was not born in the monarch's family. How could this happen?
The history of Charlemagne is rich in favorableevents and successful incidents. The fact is that when he was just born, the country was ruled by a monarch from another royal dynasty, the Merovingian dynasty. Father Karl, Pepin Short, served at the court of this sovereign as a major. He and his wife, Bertrade of Laon, actively engaged in the political affairs of the country and passionately desired the unification of neighboring kindred peoples.
The last of the Merovingian dynasty was weak andan involuntary personality. He completely fell under the influence of his environment and carried out the entire decision of the senior mayorddom. Eventually Pepin the Short entered into a treacherous alliance with the Pope, as a result of which the legitimate king was deprived of all rights and sent to a monastery, and the usurper gained power and a royal diadem. In gratitude from the new ruler, the pope received rich lands in the very center of Italy.
How did this situation affect the little Karl? As a child, he, along with his younger brother, was publicly anointed to the kingdom in the abbey of Saint-Denis. His father prepared the eldest son for the emperors, took him on military campaigns and acquainted him with state affairs. The boy grew up healthy, strong, inquisitive and active child, differing from many of his peers in an impeccable and peaceful nature.
Fourteen years after the anointing of the sons ofthe kingdom of Pepin the Short died, and the heirs, according to the will, divided among themselves the royal possessions. When did the proclamation of Charlemagne emperor of Rome? Read more about this.
Sharing the Frankish state, the brothers becamerivals and competitors to each other. The courtiers around them constantly tried to quarrel the young people. Yes, and the kings themselves wove each other intrigues, plotting to seize foreign territory and become absolute rulers in the kingdom.
Once, when among the Basques and Aquitansa revolt arose, Charles had to suppress him himself, without the help of his brother. Fearful of the collusion of Carloman and the Langobard king, Charles married the daughter of the latter and entered into an alliance with his son-in-law. However, all the tricks were unnecessary, because a couple of years, Carloman suddenly died. This death enabled Carl to seize the possession of his brother and proclaim himself a Frankish king.
However, these are not all events that preceded the proclamation of Charlemagne by the emperor of Rome.
Since the year 771, the king'shuge prosperous possessions. The borders of the Frankish state included the lands of modern France, Belgium, Germany, Austria and even a small part of the Netherlands.
However, Charlemagne was not content with this. He decided to strengthen his territorial property, adding to the kingdom a few more small states. So began the fierce invader battles that went down in history under the many-sided name of the Saxon Wars.
It all started with numerous skirmishes of FrankishStates with their ferocious and intolerant neighbors. After it was decided at the Vorm Seim to fight them against the war, the king personally led the army, invaded one of the major cities of Saxony and destroyed his pagan shrine.
Of course, the northern Germans did not intend to do sojust give up their territory, so the war with them was long and bloody. Since 772, more than thirty years have been fought between two powerful states. The forces were practically equal, so the victory often passed from one ruler to another. Finally, having concluded an alliance against Saxony with its enemies (Slavic-Bodrich), Karl the Great pacified the rebellious people and annexed vast vast territories. In order to reconcile the Saxons with defeat, a decree was issued on the equality of francs and Saxons in the face of the law.
In the struggle against the Saxon state, KarlThe Great led the military campaigns against the Langobard kingdom. This happened primarily because of the intrigues of his sovereign against the all-powerful Frankish ruler. Deciding to put in place the enemy, Charles went to war against his people. According to historians, he was not given bitter opposition, which, most likely, assisted the Pope.
After the Langobard king surrendered and wasforcibly tonsured into monks, the Frankish ruler united in one whole such territories as Gallia and Italy. Having enlisted the support of the Pope, he became a full-fledged monarch of that locality.
Gradually, Charles the Great captured Bavaria and the Avarian Khaganate, as well as some Slavic and Gallic lands.
As you can see, the territory of the empire of Charles the Greatwas a fairly impressive power, huge in its area and number of inhabitants. Keeping in obedience such a multitude of contradictory nations and tribes was a very serious and difficult task. Therefore, the internal policy pursued in the state of Charlemagne was focused on preventing all sorts of riots, insurgencies and uprisings.
However, before talking about the powerful empire of this ruler, let's find out how the proclamation of Charlemagne was made by the emperor?
Judging by historical reports, this event was not marked by pompous traditional ceremonies. Why?
The fact is that the coronation of Charlemagne took place quite spontaneously and unexpectedly. More precisely, this is exactly how the emperor himself presented this matter.
Here are some events that preceded the weddingFrankish king on the Roman kingdom. In eight hundred the year the king went to Rome to resolve the quarrels between the Pope and the displeased nobility. He was in the Catholic capital for more than six months, when one day (this was for the Christmas celebration) during the solemn ceremony, the Pope placed the imperial crown on Karl's head. Those present in the cathedral unanimously proclaimed the Frankish king as the crowned emperor of God.
The sovereign himself, wishing to reassure the court of Constantinople, pretended that he was dissatisfied with the self-act of the Pope. And yet he boldly entered into new powers, desiring to completely reunite the West and the East.
So, we learned how the empire of Charlemagne (the reign of the emperor as a Roman emperor - 800-814) arose.
Then let's talk about what is remarkable about the policy of this sovereign.
It is difficult to answer this question briefly.
As a wise ruler, Charlemagne took care of the invulnerability of his absolute power. As you know, the less insurgencies and insurrections in the state, the better people live in it.
To prevent usurpation of the throne,The emperor eradicated such a thing as a "duchy". From now on, the counts were in the field, and their authority was adjusted and supervised in accordance with the tsarist law.
What other reforms were carried out by Karl the Great?
Twice a year the state held a nationala meeting, one of which allowed all free citizens of the empire. Thanks to such transformations, the King learned from the first mouth about the needs and requirements of the various territories of his great and powerful state.
The following reforms of Charlemagne relate toeconomic changes in the state. Wise and kind ruler paid great attention to the erection of cities and religious buildings. For this, complex construction work was carried out to cut down forests, dry the marshes, etc.
Charlemagne played an important role in his empirereligion. Being in friendly relations with the Pope, the ruler personally determined the highest spiritual ranks to the people who had been tested, and also convened cathedrals and issued church decrees. He spread Christianity throughout his empire and supported the clergy, for example, by defining the tithe for him.
In his innovations, the emperor paid attentionon literacy. With churches and monasteries, schools were organized for ordinary people, and an academy was established in the palace to train courtiers and their children. Also, Charlemagne patronized many outstanding scientists and poets of the time.
The above signs show when the empire of Charlemagne reached its peak. What happened then?
Despite the works of this talented and wisemonarch, his power lost its integrity and greatness over time. This process took place gradually, for several centuries. What are the main reasons for the collapse of the great Roman Empire that began with the death of its first and most powerful ruler?
As historians note, the descendants of Charlemagne discredited themselves as representatives of power. They no longer aroused neither respect nor fear from the people.
Moreover, as we learned from this article,the empire consisted of numerous peoples, different in mentality, customs and traditions. It is almost impossible for such distinctive nations to be in complete unity and harmony with each other.
The oppression of the peasantry is the third cause of the collapse of the Roman Empire, since it led to numerous uprisings that could be used by enemy neighboring states.