Palatine tonsils are clustersLymphoid tissue, located on the sides near the entrance to the pharynx. The main component of lymphoid tissue is a loose connective tissue containing immune cells, which consist mainly of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are the basis of cellular and humoral immunity. Infectious agents are destroyed by immune cells. Antibodies bind to pathogens of the infection and remove them from the body. The infection penetrates deep into the tonsils through the cracks - the lacunae. Healthy palatine tonsils do not allow bacteria and viruses to penetrate the body. However, many people periodically have inflammation of the tonsils, called angina.
Angina, or acute tonsillitis, is acuteInfectious disease, in which the first to suffer from inflammation of the palatine tonsils. The causative agents of angina are most often various sticks, viruses, fungi, as well as streptococci and staphylococci.
Sources of infection can be sick people orsubjects after using sick people. Especially strong isolation and spread of infection produce coughing and sneezing. The main varieties of angina are follicular, catarrhal and lacunar.
The general symptoms observed with all angina areit is a headache, general weakness, pain when swallowing, sometimes pain in the joints. Almost always there is an elevated temperature, in some cases it can be very high. Very often there is chills. Lymph nodes, cervical and submandibular nodes increase and hurt on both sides. With close contact you can get sick from the patient and purulent angina. After the transferred viral diseases, the pathogenic bacterial microflora is activated.
Hypertrophy of palatine tonsils is theirincrease. This disease is most often found in children of early and middle age. The causes are frequent repeated tonsillitis. Also, hypertrophy can be congenital and manifest as a congenital hyperplasia of the lymphadenoid tissue.
Hypertrophy can cause breathing problems andspeech, interferes with the normal intake of food. A sharp violation of respiratory function occurs when adenoids are enlarged simultaneously with tonsils. There is a violation of sleep, at night there is a cough and snoring, possibly the emergence of neuropsychic disorders.
Diagnosis of this disease does not causespecial difficulties. There are methods to determine the degree of hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils. A conditional horizontal line is drawn from the tongue-and-tongue arch along the edge of the tongue, and a vertical line passing through the middle of the tongue. The distance between the lines is mentally divided into three equal parts. There are three degrees of hypertrophy: at 1 st degree, the amygdala increases by 1/3 the distance, at the 2nd degree - by 2/3, at the third degree the gap disappears and the contact of the tonsils occurs.
Treatment of hypertrophy is performed depending onclinical symptoms. At the 2nd or 3rd degree, when an increase in palatine tonsils causes a breathing disorder, speech, in this case, they are partially removed. With this removal (tonsillotomy), parts of the tonsils protruding beyond the palatine arch are cut off. Such an operation is performed in most cases by children aged 6-8 years. As a rule, it is performed on an outpatient basis and requires a systematic observation of the patient before healing. The operation is carried out in a sitting position, using local anesthesia.
Very often, along with hypertrophy of the tonsils, adenotomy is diagnosed. In this case, there is a simultaneous removal of tonsils and adenoids - tonsillotomy and adenotonzillotomy.