Preschool oligophrenopedagogics plays an important role in the development of children who have serious problems with mental health.
Studies conducted in the field of teaching and education of preschool children with serious intellectual impairments made it possible to distinguish three periods:
Let us analyze the periods of its formation in more detail.
In the first special role played the theory of LS Vygotsky. In the thirties of the last century in Russia, the main regularities of the formation of the child's psyche were revealed. Studies conducted during this period showed that the formation of higher mental functions of a person occurs after birth. This process is influenced by the social environment, education and upbringing. As a result of the data obtained, the teachers were able to evaluate the relationship between social and biological factors in the development of the preschooler, and the foundations of oligophrenopedagogics appeared.
Scientists have established the fact of gradual formationknowledge of preschool children by disclosing the opportunities inherent in it. The theory of LS Vygotsky allowed teachers to pick up new methods of oligophrenopedagogy for preschool age.
Soviet psychologists DB El'konin, A.N. Leontief showed that learning is not just a leading factor in the formation of intelligence, the development of mental processes, but also in the development of the creative activity of preschool children. The result of the continued work of a group of educators in close relationship with psychologists was the emergence in the second half of the last century of developmental education in pre-school pedagogy.
A similar way of teaching the mentally retardedpreschoolers appeared in 1975. It was at this time in Moscow was opened a special pre-school institution, designed for infants with intellectual disabilities. In the course of the research it was possible to establish that correction of abnormal development is possible only with developing training, applying the theory of sensitive periods. A baby with developmental disabilities needs a detailed and timely pedagogical effect. The effectiveness of correctional and educational activities directly depends on when the work was started. Oligophrenopedagogy is the upbringing and development of such children. The earlier problems are identified, a program for their elimination has been developed, the more chances are that the correction will have positive results.
It was published in 1976. In addition to the creation of educational and teaching methods, special recommendations were developed for their implementation in pre-school educational institutions for children with intellectual disabilities. In the methodology it was noted that oligophrenopedagogy is a division of defectology, specializing in the problems of development and education of mentally retarded toddlers.
At the end of the 20th century, research continuedin this area of pedagogy. Retraining was conducted in oligophrenopedagogics of educators, child psychologists. The result of the work of the group of psychologists and teachers of the Dow was the creation of the theory of the activity approach to the development of the personality of the preschool child. The researchers published several scientific collections in which it was noted that oligophrenopedagogy is not a verdict, but an excuse for the hard work of teachers. Appeared in the 80 years of the last century and a special program developed by O. P. Gavrilushkin, ND Sokolov, intended for the training and education of mentally retarded children of preschool age.
It deals with the fact that oligophrenopedagogy -this is an important direction of pedagogical activity, suggesting an integrated approach to the development and upbringing of children with intellectual disabilities. The emphasis was placed on the creation of optimal conditions for the formation of children's activities. The educational programs for the development of preschool children from 3 to 8 years are calculated. They assume the identification and correction of the personality of the baby with a broken intellect.
Attention is given to an integrated approach to the activities of children with intellectual disabilities.
So what is oligophrenopedagogy? The definition indicates that, first of all, there is a system of actions aimed at overcoming mental disorders in preschool children, helping such children in adapting to the social environment. In addition to the traditional role-playing games used in the DOW, special attention is paid to visual activity. Children who have serious problems with the intellect are involved in the design of educators and psychologists, they are offered classes in modeling and drawing. In the course of such activities, the development of fine motor skills in preschool children develops, their speech apparatus develops, and the skills of communicative communication are formed. Even with serious deviations in development, with the correct approach of educators and psychologists, it is possible to form elementary mathematical representations, as well as laying the foundations of behavior in society.
What is studying oligophrenopedagogics nowtime? The attention of educators and psychologists attracts the search for new forms and methods of working with preschoolers, who lag far behind their peers in intellectual development. In the main, special correctional preschool institutions act as a form of providing correctional support for preschool children with problems in intellectual development. It is here that speech therapy is well developed. Oligophrenopedagogy functions according to special programs approved by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, in close interrelation of educators with medical workers, child psychologists.
Modern research in the field ofcorrectional pedagogy, primarily focused on the creation of a special concept for early detection of problems, the timely psychological and pedagogical correction of the revealed deviations in the mental development of preschool children. In order for the work of specialists to be effective, correctional pedagogy should develop in connection with the institution of family education.
The application of the family-social approach in the earlydiagnosis of intellectual abnormalities in preschoolers implies the support of a specialist-defectologist. After identifying the problems, the question of further training the baby is solved. A special commission is created, which includes not only medical workers, but also a defectologist, educator, speech therapist, child psychologist. In case the doctors confirm the diagnosis, if there are serious mental deviations from the norm, the preschool child is sent for further education and training in a specialized preschool institution.
The main subject of preschoololigophrenopedagogy is the study of the theoretical parameters of the education and upbringing of mentally retarded children. It is at this age that the most rapid formation of properties and qualities takes place that transform a biological being into a human being. At this stage of development, a certain foundation is created, which is necessary for the subsequent formation of special skills and abilities, assimilation of various types of activities.
In addition to the qualities and properties of the psyche of children whodetermine the nature of behavior, there is a formation of a relation to the surrounding world, nature. If in this period it is not possible to fully adjust the intellectual development of the baby, this will negatively affect its subsequent development.
Oligophrenopedagogy has recently attractedattention of psychologists and teachers, since children with serious deviations in intellectual development, unfortunately, become more and more every year. In the state of many preschool institutions there is a psychologist, a speech therapist. Their task is to identify problems in the early stages of development with speech, memory, concentration, etc. It is from the professionalism of these employees that the deviations in the intellectual development of preschool children will be detected in a timely manner. The main problem is that many unfavorable factors concerning mental retardation are protracted.
GEF second generation, introduced in the preschooleducational institutions, aimed at early diagnosis of the creative abilities of children. With a serious attitude of educators to the new federal educational standards, invented specifically for preschool institutions, it is possible to quickly determine in a group of children with mental retardation, to provide them with all possible assistance, to attract professionals: doctors, psychologists, and speech therapists to work with such preschool children.