When choosing a heater for a particular room, we must first determine the need for heat in this room. This is extremely important, because with proper calculation the space will not be either overheated or too cold. At the same time, as everyone knows, there are completely different heating needs in different rooms - bathroom, kitchen or living room. How to determine the need of a room for heat, how to calculate the number of radiators for heating a private house or apartment, we will explain in this article.
An important aspect in the choice of radiators in the room is the definition of their functionality. Depending on the room, we can choose a heating radiator, or a heater - a dryer (for the bathroom), or a model that combines all these functions. When deciding on the purchase of a heating radiator, we must always consider first of all its power, so it is important to know how to calculate the number of sections of the heating radiator.The correct calculation will allow the device to properly perform its functions.
It should be borne in mind that batteries are often a decorative element, they must be coordinated with the interior design, primarily in terms of their shape, in order to create a single whole with it. If there are other sources of heat in the room (for example, a fireplace or a warm floor), we can afford to have complete freedom in choosing this type of heater.
Very often in the bathroom put the options for drying or towel warmers, they are an ideal choice for small rooms, because due to their properties they allow to use the space effectively. Such a model should be wide and with a large number of horizontal crossbars, then it will be able to accomplish its task properly.
In addition to the shape of the radiator, as well as its functions, it is also necessary to take into account its power. The generally accepted rules state that in rooms such as a living room, kitchen or bathroom, the optimum temperature is very different, so to avoid unpleasant surprises associated with a lack of heat or excess of heat, you should know how to calculate sections of the radiator and, therefore, his power.
The temperature of the water that flows through the radiator determines in many ways its capacity. Different heat sources have different characteristics. The main parameters are the temperature of the water supplied, the temperature of the water coming from the heater, and the temperature inside the room. In various types of catalogs that you can see, the above temperature parameters are respectively 75 ° / 65 ° / 20 °, such parameters characterize the normal power.
The choice of radiators in the room is a difficult process, but this should not cause us any problems. In addition, in order to choose the right radiators, their proper use is also very important. With a few simple steps, the counts will be significantly lower, and the room temperature will be stable. It is necessary to make a decision about installing the radiator where the heat losses are highest, so it is best to install them under the windows. In the case of room ventilation, this must be done quickly, but intensively - in this way, the heat loss will not be too great. In addition, do not cover the radiators with furniture, they become in this situation ineffective.With daily observance of these simple rules, our radiators will not only work properly, but also save your home budget.
Typically, the need for heat ranges from 60 to 200 W / m². In houses, well-insulated k = 0.3 W / m² K, (10 cm of polystyrene on multilayer or single-layer walls - from blocks of cellular concrete of grade 400 and thickness of 36.5 cm) the demand for heat will reach 60 W / m² for two-story houses with an attic, or 70 W / m² for single-storey houses.
A good solution in private homes is the use of one, two or three row heaters.
The minimum distance from the floor to the radiator and from the radiator to the window sill is 10 cm.
In exceptional cases, it is allowed to leave a free space of 7 cm in height, but then it is necessary to increase the heater power by 5-10%. If these conditions cannot be met, then it is better to use a radiator with a lower height. The length and number of sections is calculated based on the need for heat for heating the room.
These calculations are attached to the majority of finished projects. If we do not have a ready-made calculation, then methods can be used to calculate the power of the heating radiator based on the size of the room. This method is subject to considerable error.
As a rule, the demand for heat, as we have already mentioned above, ranges from 60 to 200 W / m².
To calculate the heating radiator in the house, it is necessary to take into account the design parameters of water in the system and, thus, introduce correction factors. The gas boiler system will operate on parameters 80/60 ° C or 75/65 ° C - radiators must be selected directly from the calculation above without the use of coefficients.
For parameters deviating from the standard, for example, 90/70 ° C, a correction factor of 0.8 should be applied and multiplied by the need for heat.
An example of how to calculate a room heating radiator for operating parameters at 90/70 ° C:
Room - 15 m², house with an attic.
Wall insulation - foam 5 cm.
The heat source is a gas boiler.
The distance from the floor to the window sill is 85 cm.
Window length - 90 cm.
The formula for calculating:Q = 15 m² x 90 W / m² x 0.8 = 1080 W
When choosing a heater for the bathroom, in addition to the aesthetic side, pay attention to its power. If you have a central heating project, the heat loss and heat output of the heater are determined by the designer. If you do not know the actual demand for heat, it can be calculated in approximate form.
It is usually assumed that the heat loss is 130-150 W, relative to 1m². In the catalogs, the radiator power is given in terms of the parameters 75/65/20 ° C, where 75 ° C is the temperature of the incoming water, 65 ° C is the temperature of the return water and 20 ° C is the temperature inside the room. Pay attention to the calculation parameters. The design temperature in the bathroom is 24 ° C. Thus, when choosing a heater, it is necessary to make corrections for changes in parameters other than the catalog.
The greatest power of the heater-heated towel will be obtained by cross-connection, up and down. When connecting the heater power down and down, the power is about 5-10% lower. The least favorable for thermal efficiency is a bottom-up connection.With this device, the power of the heater is reduced by 30-40%. Therefore, this connection option is not recommended.