From English, the word "rating" is translatedas an "evaluation". It is a percentage characteristic derived from calculating the ratio of viewers watching a particular program for a certain period of time to the total number of the existing audience in general. The rating of TV shows is measured only among part of the population older than 4 years living in large cities, where the number of residents exceeds the mark of 100 thousand people.
Another professional term for telemetrythe percentage is the refinement indicator, which is determined based on the ratio between the number of viewers actually watching the program, and people who only turned on the TV at a given moment of time or aimlessly switch channels.
The latter group is, as it were, a potentialaudience for each particular transfer. The television program and its global success, therefore, depends on the rating data, and on the calculated share. Together they reflect the real passions and desires of the audience.
The distribution of the real and potentialthe number of viewers when viewing the programs is uneven, which is due to many factors. Time of day is very important; so, the television program can get into the morning or evening prime time, when even a quiet broadcast has a chance to rise high, because people want to look at anything before going to work or on returning from it.
To understand how ratings are determinedtelecasts, it is also necessary to take into account that the calculation takes place differently depending on the type of television: terrestrial or cable (satellite). In the first variant the person stops his choice on one of about twenty channels, while in the second case - on one of 100, 150 or more! Aiming at a certain audience and its tastes, playing into the hands of experienced TV men, in turn, also generates differences in the system. Therefore, the rating of entertainment TV shows, news, children's programs, "stylish", spectacular talk shows does not fall almost never - they have an enduring demand. Experts analyze the interests of people and, based on them, adjust the television grid.
The process of calculating the rating data in RussiaTNS GALLUP-MEDIA organization is monopolistic in this sphere. This company deals with measurements in all areas of the media: broadcasting, the Internet, magazines and newspapers. The information obtained is the only one that is recognized as official.
Why does Gallup do it? Obviously, for the benefit. Rating - this is a kind of television currency, closely related to advertising and interesting, in the first place, for the advertiser. Television and TV programs act as sellers of air time and serve to attract spectator attention, so advertising agencies that want to promote their products should not make the wrong choice. In this case, they are helped by mathematical statistics, called ratings. It allows you to draw conclusions about the profitability of buying a certain TV brand and investing in it money for the purpose of promoting their products within the advertising in the period of showing a particular program.
Measurement takes place in the mainstream of the science of sociology andis divided into 2 categories: the identification of actual and forecast data. The first type allows to draw conclusions about a real TV viewing of a specific program and its success in the population. It is determined immediately after the end of the broadcast.
The forecast rating is assumed,is focused on advertising agents, but it is also necessary for broadcasters. The first type of data is needed for planning its own long-term campaigns, the latter - in order to identify the potential success of the transfer, depending on which it will be first purchased, and then displayed on the air grid at a certain place at a particular time.
Often the forecasting is based on the data of past results and results, but is carried out both through the activities of research organizations and, if desired, by the channels themselves.
But still, regardless of the species, howdetermine the rating? Telecasts and people, it would seem, are many, and asking everyone about television tastes is an impossible task. However, everything is much easier - through proven methods, often with the help of modern technology.
"Viewer Diaries" are used, like other research methods, within the framework of general information collection from a panel sample of households, where there is at least one working TV set.
For telemetry, one orseveral cities, which are divided into polling stations. They choose households, and for more variety, the families under study are stratified - they are divided into groups according to one or more of their characteristics (occupation, financial position, etc.).
The diary is a table, wherethe vertical column denotes either television channels or transmissions, depending on the rating of what needs to be identified, and the horizontal column indicates the time of the day, divided into intervals of 15 minutes. The material is given to all members of the family that agreed to the research (households), and each fills it according to their personal viewer preferences.
They are electronic counters. They are special computing devices that allow you to install and register which cumulative number of televisions and radios have been tuned in a specific period of time to a particular wave.
This "smart" mechanism is another component of how to determine the rating of TV shows, and it makes it possible to identify the beginning of the transmission scan with an accuracy of a second.
The sensor is built into the receiver. When using a device by a member of a household, registration is required by pressing a button on the remote control assigned to each person in the family. After this action, the electronic meter will automatically count all the switched channels and TV programs produced on a specific TV, and then at night the collected information about the telespecting will be transferred to the Moscow data center.
The main disadvantage of the device is a binding to a stationary home phone, which many do not have, either at all or at a particular time (for example, in the summer at the dacha).
Questionnaires and telephone interviews are also used.
Innovative methods and solutions for calculatingrating data were offered repeatedly. For example, an American company has produced a device capable of automatically fixing a face turned towards the television receiver. This idea was rejected by the population, who considered the introduction of such a device into the house not only as interference in private life, but also as an insufficient ground for drawing conclusions, because a person simply turned to the TV does not always directly watch the broadcast.
The already mentioned Gallup organization, together with thethe leading US company for rating analysis among radio listeners, has developed a device that looks like a pager. He is regularly worn by the researched researcher and with the greatest possible accuracy captures information about watching TV programs both during the stay of a person at home and outside it.
Most of these methods are used inHowever, researchers note the imperfection of each of them. "Viewers' Diaries", although a more common and cheap form of measurement, reflect far from exact results, contain significant errors.
Electronic devices are more expensive and have access to themThe respondent is not always available, because most of the devices are tied to home TVs. Do not take into account watching TV in places where people work or at various entertainment venues. Also, a person can not watch the transmission in reality, and turn it on only for background. In addition, surveys completely ignore the population of small towns and villages, while their inhabitants may have their own television preferences.
However, all these false or incomplete data are allare equally counted as real. Why? Because at the moment these existing options are the only possibility for channel directors to make more or less real conclusions about what kind of broadcast the viewer prefers to watch.
Improvement of the rating industryoccurs every year, the methods of research are becoming more accurate and better to reflect the most objective, real situation on the television market.
The ratings are in many respects similar to the stock indexesin view of its inconstancy. Any external reasons can drastically change the situation within the entire business. Typically, an absolute change in the picture is provoked by world or domestic political unrest, when most residents resort to news programs to orient themselves in a situation, which is why the ratings of these programs grow significantly.
The same situation is observed in case of seriousclimatic and natural anomalies: for example, several years ago, a strong earthquake with a magnitude of 5.8 followed, which was followed by a hurricane Irene, which disrupted airports and public transport. At this time, the weather reports have more than tripled the ratings of weather transmissions, and in some states, which suffered the most serious damage, this figure was even higher.
Thus, any instability in the external worldcan lead to serious changes in the rating system. The task of literate media planners and TV crews is to react quickly to sharp, spasmodic changes and adjust the broadcast to current requests.