The collapse of the USSR causes is as complex aseffects. The restructuring of one of its tasks was aimed at reforming the state structure of the Union. The beginning of publicity opened the possibility of media coverage of such facts that they had never been in before. Immediately the question was raised about the impossibility of independent development of some ethnic groups that inhabited it (which turned out to be not so few). Gradually, the contradictions that had previously accumulated began to be seen, but were not discussed publicly. Since 1988, such contradictions have resulted in interethnic conflicts (Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, etc.). One by one, the republics began to declare their decision to withdraw from the Union. The first to insist on this was the Baltic countries. Already in 1990 Lithuania declared its own independence, which accelerated the withdrawal from the Union of Latvia and Estonia.
The leadership of the country has taken some measures toprevent the collapse of the USSR. A 1991 referendum was held, in which the people were given the right to speak on the issue of preserving the Union. Most citizens voted for a single socialist state, but many supported the idea of introducing a presidential post in Russia. On June 12 elections took place, according to which M. Gorbachev came to power. There was a need to share power between the republics. A draft of the Union Treaty was prepared (9 republics + 1 President of the USSR). It was planned to sign the document on August 22. This did not happen.
On August 19, the State Committee foremergency situation, the troops entered Moscow. The president of the USSR was actually under arrest on the Crimean dacha. On August 22, members of the State Emergency Committee were arrested, and Gorbachev returned to Moscow. And in September, the development of a new treaty on the creation of a confederal Union of sovereign (and not Soviet) states began. However, on December 8, 1991 the leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine announced the creation of the CIS. Thus, the final disintegration of the USSR was formalized. By the end of December, 8 more republics joined it. On December 25, Gorbachev announced his resignation.
The collapse of the USSR is called peaceful and bloodless. Many believe that it is worth regretting, since the events that took place in December 1991, were the most successful option for the inevitable collapse of the empire. According to the group of researchers, if Moscow tried to preserve the Union, it would be possible to make multi-million human victims. However, if you look more closely at what was the collapse of the USSR and its consequences, you can find many reasons to doubt the bloodlessness of this event.
The problem of the liquidation of the Union is stillfrom the most discussed in political circles. The evaluation of events is far from straightforward. Of all the modern bright political figures in Russia, only Putin calls the disintegration a tragic event and a geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century.
On the Internet not so long ago it was publishedmaterial, which gave estimates of the consequences of the collapse of the Union in terms of loss of human lives. According to these data, the number of these victims reached the figures from 100 000 to 600 000 people. First of all, we are talking about direct losses in the course of military operations in the territory of the former USSR: in Karabakh, Transnistria, South Ossetia, Chechnya, Abkhazia and Tajikistan.
The 100,000 people killed are officiallyconfirmed statistics. But we must understand that it is impossible to keep an objective record in the course of the war. Take at least conditions in Karabakh during the conflict. If we add indirect losses due to the collapse of health care in the territories involved in wars, rampant crime, a mass stoppage of production, total alcoholism and drug addiction, despair that hit millions of people, it becomes clear that the figure can be increased by almost an order of magnitude. The collapse of the Soviet Union was not as peaceful as it seems at first glance.