There are many sciences in the world. One of them is geodesy. What is this science? What does she study? Where can she learn? The answers to these and other questions you will find in this article.
Like astronomy, geodesy is one of thethe most ancient sciences. However, if every schoolboy knows about astronomy, then most people have never heard of such a science as geodesy. And at the same time, without the use of geodetic knowledge, the development of modern society is unthinkable.
Geodesy - what is it? What is this science? To put it briefly, this is the science of studying and measuring the Earth's surface.
Geodesy is the science of how to producemeasurements on the surface of the earth, which are conducted to study the shape and dimensions of the Earth, as well as to depict the entire planet and its parts on plans and maps. In addition, geodesy deals with methods of special measurements that are necessary to solve economic and engineering problems.
Geodesy - what is it? It is a science that is dynamically developing. So, in the process of development of science and technology, it was divided into a number of disciplines.
Higher geodesy studies the size and shape of the Earth, as well as methods by which it is possible to accurately determine the coordinates of points on the surface of the planet and depict them on a plane.
By studying the dimensions and shapes of the earth's surface in order to depict it on maps, profiles and plans, the division of geodesy-topography-is engaged.
Geodesy and cartography study the processes and methods of creating and using a variety of maps.
Photogrammetry is engaged in solving measurement problems for space and aerial photographs for various purposes, for example for measuring buildings and buildings, for obtaining plans and maps, and so on.
Applied, or engineering, geodesy studies a whole complex of geodetic works that are performed in the construction, exploration and operation of a variety of structures and buildings.
Geometric relationship between pointsThe Earth's surface is studied by means of artificial satellites of the Earth by space geodesy. Now, in connection with the fact that new advances in the field of measurement and observation techniques have appeared, the number of studies on the Earth has also added problems of solving scientific problems in studying the size and shape of the Moon, as well as other planets of the solar system and their gravity fields.
Marine geodesy and cartography are engaged insolution of both scientific and applied geodetic tasks at sea. The main task was and remains to determine the surface of the Earth and its gravitational field in the seas and oceans. Marine geodesy solves the following series of tasks: the construction of hydraulic structures, the exploitation and exploration of underwater resources and so on. However, the most important task of such support is mapping, which is accompanied by photography, and geodetic reference.
Geodesy, like many other sciences, arose in ancient times. Progress in the exact and natural sciences, the invention of a telescope, pendulum and other instruments - all this contributed to its development.
However, it should be noted that over the past half centurythis science has achieved greater success than it has ever been. This is due, for example, to the fact that engineering geodesy can now get data from artificial satellites, and also with the fact that a lot of electronic measuring instruments and electronic computers have appeared.
A modern computer allows analysisa huge amount of information data, apply new mathematical developments, which gave a new impetus to the development of theoretical geodesy, taking place in parallel with the progress of information theory and mathematics.
Geodetic data are used in variousareas, such as navigation, cartography and land use. What do they let you know? For example, determine the location of drilling platforms on the shelf, the flood zone after the construction of the dam, the exact position of administrative and state borders of all kinds and so on. Strategic guidance systems and navigation are equally dependent on how accurate the information about the position of the target and the adequacy of physical models that describe the Earth's gravitational field. The measurements obtained by surveyors are used in the study of plate tectonics and seismology. When searching for many minerals (including oil) gravimetric survey is used.
Today in Russia there is a large numberEducational institutions that will make it possible to obtain a profession of a surveyor. In the field of this science, at a different level of mastering this rather complex specialty, a specialist who can graduate as a secondary school - college or college of geodesy - and higher - an academy, institute or university, can work.
Education in this area can be chosen on your owntaste. A future specialist can graduate from a specialized university or institute of geodesy. For example, MIIGAiK is one of the oldest and most prestigious specialized universities in Russia. Or you can get a secondary education: go to study in the St. Petersburg or Novosibirsk technical school of geodesy and cartography.
After the end of the secondary special educationinstitutions on the specialty of "geodesist" graduate can count on the position of assistant surveyor or surveyor. In addition, if desired, he can continue to improve their knowledge in this area by enrolling in a higher education institution.
Graduation of the university gives the graduate the right to independent work, and the completion of graduate school allows you to further advance in your career in a scientific and practical direction.
Among the variety of activities can be identified the following areas:
A schoolboy who is going to devote in the futureit is necessary to know some general educational subjects, for example, mathematics, geography, Russian language, history, social science, as well as informatics and information and communication technologies. As a rule, it is these disciplines that are passed at the entrance examinations in secondary and higher educational institutions in geodesic specialties.
When applying for a specialty related togeodesy, they usually hand over some three of the six above items, but what exactly these items will be - depends on the educational institution, the faculty and the type of specialty.
You can take exams on the basis of GIA or EGE results, or you can test for applicants in all subjects except history and social studies - they are taken orally.
Some colleges and technical schools do not requirepassing the entrance examinations. An example is the Novosibirsk Technical College of Geodesy and Cartography, or NTGiK. In this educational institution specialists are trained in the following specialties: applied geodesy (geodesist-technician), cartography (technician-cartographer) and aerial photogeodesy (aerophotogeodesist-technician).
Specialists in the field of geodesy and cartographyare often required in a variety of types of production. Therefore, the university and secondary specialized training of these specialists shows the presence of different biases, which in future will determine the practical orientation of the work of the surveyor. In addition, this is also influenced by traditions that historically existed within the walls of the school.
It is not surprising that existing universities are preparingstudents in different ways. In any educational institution there is a specificity of selection of already available directions on a specialty. However, any high school, technical school or college will give a fundamental training, which in the future will make it possible to change the direction of work, re-qualify and move to an adjacent specialization.
Thus, it can be concluded that geodesy today is one of the most interesting and developing sciences. Each specialist will be able to find himself in it.