The baby has not yet had time to be born, and divination already begins in the family, who will the child look like? And mom thinks: what will my baby look like? How genetics affect the appearance and personality of the child and what is inherited, read on.
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How to find out who the child will look like
You probably more than once imagined the appearance of your child during pregnancy, imagining who the child will look like. Will he be tall like a husband? Will his hair be curly like yours? Or maybe he will inherit his grandfather's sense of humor?
Experts say that 46 human chromosomes comprise from 60,000 to 100,000 genes (of which DNA is composed). The child gets 23 mother's chromosomes and 23 fathers. With all sorts of combinations of genes, some parents can theoretically produce 64 trillion different children.This should make you understand that it is impossible to predict who the child will look like. The science of genetics is very complex, but you can get at least a brief overview to fuel your imagination.
Remember something about genes and fruit flies from school biology lessons? Back in those days, you were told that the dominant gene supplants the recessive. Scientists have long known that a person is more complicated than a fruit fly. But only recently they began to understand how much more difficult.
As it turned out, human nature is characterized by polygenicity, that is, a large number of genes affect their formation. To complicate the picture even more, imagine that with respect to certain characteristics, such as height, weight, and even character (read more in the article Character a Child Appears Before Birth), the environment has a big influence on which genes to prevail.
Who the child will look like: the color of the child's eyes
If only one pair of genes influenced the definition of a child’s eye color, there would be only three colors - blue, green and hazel. But there is a whole palette of shades of the human eye. This is because a large number of genes affect this fact.
The color of the child’s eyes is determined by the amount of melanin (brown pigment) in the iris. In the dark eyes, its quantity is large, in blue - small, in the eyes of green and brown color - different. Since different genes are responsible for how much melanin will acquire the eye and where exactly it will manifest itself (brown or blue may be brighter towards the edge of the iris or towards the center), there are an incredible variety of hues for the color of a child’s eye. It is even possible that a blue-eyed parent will have a brown-eyed child.
Who the child will look like: facial features and body
Characteristics such as dimples, bald patches or facial symmetry (or, for example, one eyebrow above the other) are considered dominant and change from generation to generation. But the shape of the palm, fingers, shape of the toes, plus such unusual things as whirlwinds, are often observed in all generations.
It happens that fingerprints are similar in members of the same family. You can also inherit crooked teeth, as the shape of the jaw and the inclination of the teeth are due to genes. In addition, there is a gene responsible for the gap between the teeth, and it is considered dominant.
To understand how unusual your child’s features may be, look at photos of older generations. And if you see that most relatives have a jaw or round face protruding, it is likely that these traits will be passed on to your child.
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Who the child will look like: height and weight
For a rough estimate of growth, determine the average height of mom and dad. Then add a centimeter for the boy, or subtract a centimeter for the girl. If your height is 158 cm, and your husband's height is 164 cm, then the average height will be 161 cm. Thus, your son's growth will be somewhere 162 cm, and 159 cm daughters. Of course, such unpredictable science as genetics does not tolerate such a rough yardstick. So it is likely that your child will be a head taller than the one of the two of you, or a head shorter than the one who is lower.
A very large influence on the growth of the child have nutrition and health. If your daughter's genes are set to be 160 cm tall, she may not reach this mark due to inadequate nutrition or some external factors that interfered with normal development.In another case, it can outgrow the preset mark thanks to a balanced diet, which also proves the studies of recent years.
But it’s impossible to guess whether your child is thin or full. Genes only approximately describe the future weight of the child, but do not guarantee it. Of course, when both parents have excess weight, the probability of such problems in a child is quite high. Overweight child can be explained by genes, family lifestyle, but rather a combination of both factors.
Who will the child look like: hair color
As a rule, dark hair color prevails over light. But as in the definition of eye color, hair can acquire different shades, mixed from the hair color of both parents. It depends on the pigments contained in your hair with your husband and how they are mixed. Parents with a similar hair color can have a baby with a slightly different shade of the same color.
Unexpected combinations occur in parents with different hair color. This happens when the recessive color gene of one parent interacts with the gene of the other parent.So it is possible that a dark-haired partner, but with a recessive white gene, when interacting with the white gene of another partner, will have a child with blond hair.
Red hair color is considered dominant in relation to white
Regarding red hair, which was previously considered recessive, is now recognized as dominant in relation to white. You may be red and not even aware of this, because the red shade of your hair is blocked by a stronger brown or black pigment.
Who the child will look like: personality
According to experts, many personal characteristics (for example, the reaction to noise) are genetically incorporated in a child from birth. But experts also believe that the environment has a huge impact on the formation of behavior. For example, the desire to take risks can be laid genetically (they recently discovered a gene of adventurism), but you can make this very restlessness and thirst for adventure appear less, differently, or disappear altogether.
In the same way, creatively gifted children, or owners of absolute hearing (also proven scientifically about the existence of the corresponding genes), will perfectly manifest themselves in contributing to this environment.But if they never touched brushes or musical instruments, then the talent will simply disappear. Fortunately, it works in the opposite direction. So, a child without any predisposition will be able, through effort and work on himself, to develop a musical ear or artistic skill. It is hardly possible to find a trait that cannot be developed by oneself, or which gene is completely absent.
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Whom the child will look like: twins
Twins that come out of one fertilized egg and split into two embryos is an accident. There is no scientifically proven genetic connection. But the cases with twins, which are obtained from two fertilized eggs and two sperm, are genetically determined. So, if twins were born in a family, you have a chance to get “two for the price of one.”
The question is which gene is responsible for dual or multiple ovulation — dominant or recessive? It is difficult to determine, since the case of conception of twins is more than the cases of birth. One embryo may die in the womb, or the woman may not be able to endure both at such an early stage that he does not even know that she was pregnant.And since scientists cannot determine how many instances of conceiving twins exist, it is difficult to determine this as the dominant gene.
With an incredible amount of various combinations of genes that affect the character and appearance of your child, it is impossible to predict anything. But this is the exciting side of pregnancy - fantasize as much as you like.