Fire doors: GOST and types

Fire doors: GOST and types

Doors in their dwellings use mankindalready many centuries. However, if earlier this element was intended only to protect the house from intrusion of unauthorized persons, today the functions of the doors became much wider. And one of the most important is to become a barrier to the fire. Modern fire-prevention doors (GOST, its main requirements and recommendations will be considered further) are able, at least, to delay the time of entry of an open flame into the building, thereby giving people the opportunity to leave the building or, if this is not possible, to wait outside help from fire services. The maximum that fireproof door designs are capable of is to block the flame in a burning room before the fire fighting services arrive.

Requirements for fire doors GOST

Basic normative documents

The main normative document regulating the requirements for fire doors is GOST. Today, there are several such documents, and each of them describes certain parameters of door designs.

№ п / п

GOST number

Basic requirements and recommendations of the document

1.

R 53307-2007

(in exchange for 30247.2-97)

Describes different methodologies for assessingparameters of fire resistance. The document obliges to test the door for a time period, during which the design can contain the flame, and the temperature at which destruction begins.

2.

30247.0-94

Describes techniques and requirements for fire resistance tests under temperature influences under standard conditions.

3.

26602.1-99

Describes techniques for determining the resistance to heat transfer of doors and other structures installed in buildings (heated) for different purposes.

4.

26602.3-99

Describes the methods for determining the sound insulation of doors. Tests are carried out in the laboratory.

The main factor in choosing doors are the characteristics that determine the confrontation with the fire. When marking constructions in alphabetic order, it looks like this:

  • "E" - the appearance of cracks on the door or lossintegrity of the entire structure with direct exposure to the fire after a specified period of time. For example, "E30" means that destruction will begin after 30 minutes of burning.
  • "I" - loss of properties or combustion of heat-insulating material.
  • "R" - the maximum indications of the integrity of the door leaf. After a specified period of time, deformation or destruction begins.

GOST wooden fire doors

Types of fire doors

Before you stop picking on any oneoption, we must carefully read what types of fire doors there are in general. GOST, SNIP or other normative documents regulate the classification of door structures in three directions.

  • Regarding the material from which they are made, the doors can be wooden, metal and glass (the latter is quite convenient, since the focus of ignition and the intensity of the flame are visible).
  • According to the type of construction, fire doors can be made one- and two-leaf.
  • According to the degree of resistance to fire, there are 3 types of doors - 1st, 2nd and 3rd.

In the process of production of such products asfireproof doors, GOST regulates the technical requirements to which any conventional doors are subjected, and in addition to this, requirements are advanced regarding the parameters of fire resistance, counteraction of the flame. The main thing is that the elements of the structure should not be heated to high temperatures and, the more, melt. In addition, the deformation from high temperatures should be directed outward or inward.

Dimensions

Today, the construction market is quite a lotmanufacturers produce fire doors. The dimensions of GOST R53303-2009 are regulated as follows. Usually, fire resistance is checked for any one type of door of a specific manufacturer. The results of the tests described in the protocol are valid for this model in certain permissible deviations from the overall dimensions, which range from + 10% to -30% in height and width. Rounding is possible up to 5 cm in the larger side and up to 10 cm in the smaller direction.

metal fire door

Simply put, this fire door manufacturer allows GOST to produce with deviations of + 10% to -30% of the door dimensions, which has passed the test and is certified.

Is it gate or doors?

Fireproof doors and gates, GOST

How large a design can be consideredthe fire hatch? And what is the size of the doorways when the fire doors and gates are installed? GOST describes as constructions with absolute sizes (the market of certified products will not be able to offer products with larger or smaller dimensions), as well as certified doors from a specific manufacturer. Since the starting point of the dimensions starts from the doors, a deviation of -30% to the construction with the smallest dimensions will determine the transition point from the doors to the hatches. A correction of + 10% to the door with the largest dimensions will indicate the time of the transition doors into the gate.

Places of possible installation

Installation of fire doors (GOST and SNiPcontain complete information) is only possible in certain places. Since the main purpose of such structures is to protect people and property from fire, the main installation points are those with an increased threat of fire. In the field of industry, these are warehouses, corridors, the main distribution board of the enterprise, and workshops. In office buildings it makes sense to install such doors where important documentation is stored.

installation of fireproof doors GOST

Materials used

According to the majority of consumers, the largestthe fire-resistant metal door has a degree of fire resistance. GOST - the main normative document - obliges for the manufacture to use grades of alloyed steels. As coatings and heaters, non-toxic refractory compounds and materials should be used. Sufficiently reliable and providing good protection against fire are also wooden fire doors, pre-impregnated with special compounds that slow down the combustion.

In general, modern technologies allowuse for the manufacture of doors aluminum profiles with thermal accumulating fillers, multilayer refractory glass. As a rule, load-bearing structures from aluminum profiles are supplied with high-quality fittings.

The main stages of manufacturing doors

The technological process, as a rule, looks as follows in a phased manner:

  • materials from which the door structures will be subsequently manufactured are tested;
  • the main design elements are manufactured in strict accordance with GOST;
  • doors fireproof GOST 30247.0-94 recommends to undergo various kinds of tests.

Each element of the design has its ownspecific characteristics. To produce a door frame, a steel bent profile is used. According to technical requirements, the presence of a threshold is mandatory. The door handles are made of metal and covered with a special polymer composition, which will open even the heated door that has warmed up. The case of the lock must be fire resistant. To produce its components, high-quality steel is used.

Developed and widely used in the processmanufacturing of doors from metal special technologies, heat-insulating fillers, thermal tapes, expanding from hot smoke, rubber seals against cold smoke are used.

Do I need a license to install doors?

Before giving preference to one or anothercompany to install fire doors, it is necessary to find out whether a license is needed for such activities. Since this kind of work should be done exclusively by professionals and the highest quality, the license is, of course, necessary. While the client does not see the full set of permits, he can hardly fully trust the performer. The issuance of this type of paper is carried out by the fire department. In the future, it is this structure (the fire department) that will have to track whether work has been performed on the installation of fireproof doors, whether all the requirements and standards described in GOSTs and SNiP have been met.

All requirements, in turn, can be divided into two parts: those provided for by the regulatory document and those that the customer puts forward to the contractor.

Requirements of normative documents (GOST, SNiP)

Normative document regulating installationfire door designs, does not exist. However, for the installation of conventional iron doors with some nuances and features such a document is developed, and this is GOST. Installation of fire doors must be made by building anchors with a diameter of at least 10 mm. The distance between the adjacent fastener elements is not less than 700 mm. The door structure itself should be installed using a level and a plumb line. The deviation of the box from the axles is allowed not more than 1.5 mm per 1 meter of length. The door block must be installed in the prepared opening symmetrically with respect to the vertical of the opening. The construction gaps and seams must be filled with foam.

GOST installation of fire doors

Customer's requirements for the performer

First, it is a necessary package of documents. These include:

  • a document authorizing the installation of fire doors (license);
  • certificate of fire safety;
  • the passport to the door.

Also, the presence of a goodadjusted door closer, under the force of which the door should close itself. It must be ensured that a special non-combustible fire-fighting foam was used for the installation. To do this is quite simple, since it has a pink color. Foam of any other color should be replaced. Available for review should be the places where the main parameters of the door and its manufacturer are indicated. In addition, the fireproof metal door (GOST does not contain such information) should fit snugly against the box. Visible for the visual overview of the play is a poor-quality work on installing the door. The sealing rubber should be slightly compressed. The color should be uniform, the thermo-expanding tape is glued qualitatively, and the door should be closed with a door closer without impact.

If the customer is satisfied, the act on installing the doors is signed.

Operation and maintenance

fireproof doors

Maintenance of the fire door does notdiffers from the maintenance of the usual design, it is not regulated by GOST. Wooden fire doors, just like metal ones, must be used during the declared service life. Replacement is subject to structures that have fulfilled their main function during a fire. In such cases, the door is dismantled and another one is installed.

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