In the current legislation, there arenorms that guarantee the protection of children and adolescents. In the TC, in particular, there are a number of provisions regulating the employment of a minor worker. Step-by-step procedure of enrollment in the state provides for various mandatory activities. Their specificity depends on a number of factors. Let's consider further how the employment of a minor worker is carried out.
In accordance with the International Covenant of 1966year on cultural, social and economic rights, in each state, age restrictions must be established, below which it is forbidden to use paid child labor. If these limits are violated, there should also be liability for the employer. In addition, punishments should establish the use of child labor in harmful or hazardous to health and life conditions. In the Russian Federation there are various normative acts that ensure the protection of the rights of minors. The state policy as a whole is focused on granting of this category of citizens of certain guarantees and assistance to those in need of employment. So, the normative acts regulate the procedure according to which the admission of minors aged 14-18 is allowed. In addition, the law provides for the employment of citizens aged 18-20 years who are graduates of primary and secondary professional educational institutions. Social protection of the category in question is implemented through the introduction of quotas for jobs. This is established in Art. 11, item 2 of the Federal Law No. 124.
The law quite strictly regulates the order, incompliance with which a minor is employed. Step-by-step procedure for each specific group is explained in the TC. General rules are established in art. 63. In accordance with its provisions, all enterprises, except for harmful and dangerous, are allowed to hire a minor at the age of 16 years. Along with this, the legislation provides for a number of conditions, in which case it is possible to enroll younger specialists in the staff.
In accordance with establishedsanitary and epidemiological rules, the employment of a minor at the age of 17 and under is prohibited for hazardous and harmful production. This requirement is mandatory for all organizations and individuals who use the work of adolescents and organize their training, regardless of departmental affiliation, type of economic activity, organizational and legal status, ownership. For example, the employment of a minor at the age of 17 and under is prohibited if the activity is carried out:
Also, these young people can not be recruited if it involves trade, transportation, production of alcoholic beverages, narcotic and other toxic substances, tobacco products.
Admission of minors is not allowed:
In civil law, minors are divided into two categories:
Also the classification is carried out according to the level of education:
The package of securities to be providedthe employer, will depend on which group the citizen belongs to. So, a 14-year-old competitor should be presented with a statement. The law does not explicitly establish the completion of this paper, but in practice it is used quite often. In addition, it is highly desirable to have this application in case of a labor dispute. The Civil Code provides that on behalf of a child under the age of 18, all transactions are made by parents. This rule applies to the conclusion of an employment contract. Thus, on behalf of a teenager, parents write a statement according to which a minor worker will be employed. Step-by-step procedure for the inclusion of a new employee in the staff also provides for a mandatory preliminary medical examination, which results in a medical report. This paper should also be provided to the tenant. The conclusion should indicate that the state of health of the adolescent corresponds to the activities that will be performed by him at the enterprise. The employer should also be provided with:
All actions concerning the conclusion of a laborcontract, are carried out not by the teenager, but by his trustees or parents. This, however, does not relieve the employer of a number of responsibilities. In general, the procedure for hiring minors is similar to that for fully capable citizens. A teenager should be acquainted with all the local acts of the enterprise concerning his activities directly. In particular, they include:
The signature on acquaintance with these acts, the order on employment, again, is not a teenager, but his parent / guardian.
The employment of a minor at the age of 15years, and also sixteen and fourteen, is carried out with the obligatory observance of a number of requirements. In particular, the following conditions must be fulfilled:
There is no explanation in the legislationthe term "easy work". However, ILO Convention No. 138 specifies that certain regulations or legislation of a country may allow the employment of a minor employee (schoolchild) to perform tasks that:
As a rule, the employment of a minor at the age of 16 and under is carried out:
Regardless of how longthe employment of a minor employee is carried out - during the summer holidays or permanently - a labor contract is drawn up. As for the papers that should be provided to the employer, their list is supplemented only by a certificate from the educational institution.
Minor in agefifteen to sixteen years has the right to choose. He can continue his education in the secondary school or leave school. Depending on your choice, if you want to find a job, the teenager must provide one of the following papers:
The list of other securities is similar to the abovehigher. At the conclusion of the employment contract with a person of 17-18 years, it is necessary, among other things, to provide a certificate of a citizen who is subject to conscription to the service (pripisnoe sv-in).
He acts as a mandatory conditionhiring a minor. Preliminary medical examination is necessary to establish the state of health of a citizen and, in accordance with it, to carry out activities in a particular profession. The conclusion of the medical commission is made out on the form on ф. No. 086 / y. Until 18 years of age, minors undergo medical examinations every year.
Employment of a minor worker(temporarily) issued by the appropriate order. On the basis of it, a fixed-term employment contract is concluded if the adolescent is enrolled in an enterprise for performing professional activities for a period of up to two months or for a particular season. It is allowed to hire a minor employee under a contract of employment, taking into account the restrictions provided by law for a period of up to a year. Legislation does not provide for the establishment of a trial period for this category of citizens.
This article establishes prohibitions that apply to minors. In particular, adolescents are not allowed:
However, these restrictions do not apply to all minors. The prohibitions do not apply to employees:
At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the prohibitions on the activity:
It is also not permissible for minors to conclude agreements on full collective or individual responsibility.
Like the rest of the staff, the minorrest. However, for young specialists, legislation provides for its long duration. Thus, minors are granted leave on 31 calendar days. Use this time a specialist can at any convenient time. Thus rest can be given under the application of the worker before the termination of six months of continuous activity at the enterprise. If the specialist combines training in accredited state educational institutions of higher, secondary or primary vocational education, he is entitled to additional leave. At the same time, his average salary remains. It should also be remembered that the employer has no right to recall the employee from leave, to replace the latter with monetary compensation. In addition, the head of the enterprise is obliged to send a specialist to rest, even if the latter requests to postpone it.
With time-based payment, accrual is carried outtaking into account the shorter duration of the shift. If a minor works piece-work, his calculation is carried out at the appropriate rates. The calculation of salaries for specialists who study in educational institutions and carry out professional activities at the enterprise in their spare time, the calculation is made proportionally to the hours worked or depending on the output. From own means the employer can charge additional payments:
Termination of legal relations with a minoremployee at the initiative of the employer is allowed with the consent of the labor inspection and the KDN. As an exception, it is the cessation of the activities of the IP, the liquidation of the organization. Minors bear full property liability when:
In all these cases, an internal investigation must be conducted.