When the times of paganism passed, whenChristianity ceased to be persecuted and was recognized as a world religion, it would seem that all disagreements should be resolved. But sometimes to resolve the arising conflicts, only the Ecumenical Councils could refute heretical teachings - there was not even a world inside the Church.
The First Ecumenical Council was the Council of Nicaea,convened in 325 year. The reason for him was the widespread teaching of the Alexandrian presbyter Arius. Its essence was to deny the identity between God the Father and God the Son. He claimed that Jesus Christ was created by the Lord, but is not his incarnation. Such a thought fundamentally disproved all the dogmas of Christianity, and therefore originally the teaching of Arius was rejected by the Local Council. However, the proud presbyter refused to recognize the decision of the Council as legitimate and continued to attract believers to his side.
Then the Emperor Constantine invited bishops fromall countries of the world to the Ecumenical Council in the small city of Nicaeus (now it is called Iznik and is located in the territory of modern Turkey). Some of the present representatives of the Church carried on their bodies traces of torture received in the name of true Christianity. There were also bishops supporting Aria.
The debate lasted more than two months. During this time there were many discussions, speeches of philosophers, refinements of theological formulations. As the legend says, the point of controversy was the manifestation of a divine miracle. As the unity of the three beginnings, he cited an example of a clay crock: water, fire, clay give a single whole. Also the Holy Trinity is essentially one God. After his speech, fire appeared from the shard, water appeared and clay formed. After such a miracle, the Nicean Council finally rejected the false teaching of Arius, excommunicated him from the Church, approved the Creed and established 20 rules for church discipline, determined the date of the celebration of Easter.
But this Church Council did not setthe final point in this matter. Disputes lasted a very long time. Even now, their echoes are still heard - Arianism formed the basis of the teachings of Jehovah's Witnesses.
In addition to the Council of 325, there was also the SecondThe Nicene Council, convened by the Empress Constantinople, in the year 787. Its purpose was to abolish the iconoclasm that existed at the time. In fact, the Empress made two attempts to convene the Ecumenical Council. But in 786, in the Temple of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, where the Council began its work, the guard that supported the iconoclasts burst. The Holy Fathers had to disperse.
Having resorted to considerable tricks, disbanding the oldGuards, recruiting new troops, Irina still convened the Council in 787, but transferred it from Constantinople to Nicaea. His work lasted a month, according to her results the veneration of icons was restored, they were allowed in the churches.
However, this Nicaeus Cathedral was not able to fullyachieve your goal. Iconoclasm continued to exist. Finally, the movement of iconoclasts was defeated only in 843, at the Council of Constantinople.