When studying the vegetation cover of the Earth,note that there is a division into zones in which some or other representatives of the flora prevail. The same statement applies to the animal world. This is determined by the specific climate conditions that exist in each particular area. Based on these observations, a division into climatic zones arose. Let us consider them in more detail.
Equatorial zone, or internal tropical,includes a part of the land that extends along the equator before the beginning of 10 ° S. w. and 10 ° sec. w. This zone is characterized by a high amount of precipitation and high air temperature. Temperature fluctuations are insignificant.
Then comes the outer tropical zone. It is also characterized by a high temperature, but precipitation falls much less. Rainy periods are dry. All climatic zones have their own characteristic features of weather conditions.
Further there is a zone of subtropics or a zone of trade winds. Here the amount of precipitation is significantly reduced. The air in this area is less humid. Because of the rising air currents, the weather is cloudless, and fluctuations in air temperature during the day are insignificant. In this climatic zone, deserts predominate.
The zone of etheses is characterized by a sharp change in the rainy winter in summer with dry weather.
The temperate climate zone is characterized by a largeamount of precipitation during the year. The climate in such areas can be warm, practically free of frosts or with cold, but short-lived winters. It depends on the proximity of the ocean.
But this is not all the climatic zones represented on our planet.
Next is a zone of temperate latitudes of arid climate. It is characterized by a small amount of precipitation, minimal air humidity, cold winter and warm summer.
Climatic zones of the Earth completes the last, polar or arctic zone. It is characterized by small precipitation and very low air temperature.
Natural and climatic zones in different hemispheresare not the same. They can be expressed quite brightly or, conversely, have weak characteristic features. This depends on the ratio of land and ocean waters, as well as air and sea currents.
But nevertheless, the planet is surrounded by parallel climatic zones with the same signs and weather conditions.
An example was given of a detailed division of the Earth into zones in accordance with the existing climate. But if we speak more briefly, we can distinguish five main zones.
Near the South and North Poles arepolar zones. Then, as we approach the equator, there are zones of temperate climate. And the last zone is on both sides of the equator and is called tropical.
Many of the European countries are in the temperate zone.
For each zone, certain representatives of the plant and animal world are characteristic.
If we consider the climatic zones of Russia, thenthere is a great variety. This is due to the vast territory of the country, which represents the temperate, subarctic, subtropical and arctic climate.
Climatic signs of the following zones are clearly pronounced: tundra, forest, forest-tundra, steppe, forest-steppe and Arctic.
The climatic zones also affect the economy of the country. They determine the diversity of animal and plant life. For example, Russia is the largest producer and supplier of valuable furs.
Thus, the climate zone isa sign of one or another territory of the planet. It becomes the determining factor for the habitat of animals and the growth of certain plant species. Each climate zone has its own climate, which depends on air and sea currents.