Unemployment is the lack of work in the activeof the country's population. The concept of unemployment is expressed as a percentage of the number of unemployed to the active working population. Non-working people are one of the properties of a market economy. Their number increases significantly during crises and decreases during periods of upsurge. It should be noted that moderate unemployment is a normal and even necessary phenomenon for economic growth. This is a kind of reserve of labor freedom, which can later be useful, for example, with the expansion of production.
What are the causes of unemployment? Why are healthy and capable of working people forced to stay at home? It is rather difficult to give unambiguous answers to these questions. The reasons for unemployment can hide both in the level of economic development and in the personal attitude of every citizen of the country to the need to go to work. Recently, when the human workforce is increasingly replaced by computer technology, the number of non-working people is constantly increasing. For example, their staff significantly reduced the printing press, since now the texts are typed using computer equipment. As a result, unemployment in this direction has increased several times. The causes of unemployment are also associated with temporary changes in the level of production of goods in various sectors of the economy, as well as economic stagnation, downturns and depressions. A significant role is made by the definition of pay. In the case when the minimum size of labor rises, production costs increase substantially, hence, there is a need for a reduction in labor. As already mentioned above, the causes of unemployment can be directly related to a person. For example, for health reasons it refers to the workforce, but does not want to work deliberately, preferring a calm and measured life without permanent means of subsistence. It is not always possible to find a job, and because the options considered have a low pay, they require certain skills that a person does not currently own.
At present, the unemployment rate forrelative to the active working population is not very large. Each year, it varies depending on the state of the economy and other indicators. Unemployment statistics show that in recent years there has been no significant increase in the number of unemployed. So, as of June 2011, 1,487,575 people were registered with the employment services of the Russian Federation. The total number of unemployed is about 5.5 million people, in percentage - 7.2% of the total working population of the country. If we compare with Europe, then this figure is higher and is 9.9%. The highest unemployment is observed in small towns and rural areas. In large cities, this problem is not acute. The number of unemployed in the country is also heterogeneous. So, the least number of nonworkers in Moscow and St. Petersburg, but most of all there are in the Caucasus and Tyva.
Unemployment is not a good indicatoreconomy. It is clear evidence that a certain number of people for one reason or another can not get a job, and, accordingly, their income becomes very low. In recent years, the Russian government is trying to at least slightly solve the problem of providing the population with jobs, thereby reducing unemployment. For example, in the near future, to create all conditions for the professional training of workers in connection with the modernization of production, providing support to the unemployed in opening their own business, including disabled people, having large children and parents raising children with disabilities.