Atherosclerosis is classified as commonchronic diseases, in which the inner shell of the aorta, arteries of medium and large caliber, which causes proliferation of connective tissue in their walls, is damaged. With arteriosclerosis, the lumen of the arteries narrows, the arterial wall becomes denser, and its elongation decreases.
Such violations in the vessels result in a prolonged use of foods containing an excess of animal fats, rich in cholesterol.
In the emergence of atherosclerosis, an important role is played by arterial hypertension, smoking, obesity, weak physical activity.
Atherosclerosis in the initial stage is manifesteddetection of lipid spots, or lipid strips of various sizes, which are located most often in the thoracic aorta. Over time, this leads to insufficient blood supply, a thrombus is formed and the shell of the artery wall is affected, its elasticity and strength are reduced, which can contribute to the development of an aneurysm.
Atherosclerosis, whose symptoms and clinicalmanifestations depend on the localization of the process, is diagnosed by indirect signs. Atherosclerotic narrowing of the coronary arteries causes ischemic heart disease, which is manifested by attacks of angina pectoris, arrhythmias and myocardial infarction. Progression of the disease leads to cardiosclerosis and heart failure.
Symptoms of atherosclerosis in the defeat of extracranialarteries feeding the brain, and the arteries of the brain are expressed by a decrease in memory, dizziness, pathological personality changes until the consciousness is darkened. When lesions of atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries often occurs a stroke, mainly in patients with hypertension.
Symptoms of arteries atherosclerosis of the abdominal cavity -this is a pain in the abdomen, the so-called "abdominal toad." A terrible complication, which causes atherosclerosis of the mesenteric arteries, is thrombosis and intestinal obstruction.
Atherosclerosis of the lower extremities, the symptoms isthe following: severe pain in one or two legs, pale and cold extremities, and marbling of the skin. It can manifest as a so-called intermittent claudication, i.e. pain in the leg that occurs when walking and stops after stopping.
Has atherosclerosis of the lower extremities and such symptoms:
• severe pain and numbness in the limbs;
• non-healing wounds on the legs and fingers;
• Peeling and cracking of the skin.
Treatment of atherosclerosis
In the early period of the disease, cholesterol plaquesin the arteries can diminish and disappear. Atherosclerosis, the symptoms of which have only begun to appear, while observing the right diet with minimal inclusion of animal fats, sweets and sugar, which cause lipid synthesis, can stop its progression. Recommended intake of vegetable fats - corn, flaxseed oil, a number of varieties of margarine. If, when dieting, dyslipoproteinemia persists, drug treatment is indicated under the control of biochemical indicators. A competent correction of lipid metabolism disturbances slows atherosclerosis, symptoms disappear, and mortality from heart and vascular diseases decreases.
Surgical treatment of atherosclerosis is performed in a hospital with a significant blockage or aneurysm.
Prevention of atherosclerosis
Prevention of atherosclerosis is correcta way of life, observance of rest, a mode of work and rest, i.e. those factors that reduce the likelihood of overstrain of the nervous system; exclusion of hypodynamia, refusal from smoking and alcohol; proper nutrition; maintaining a stable body weight. It is important to detect arterial hypertension in a timely manner, as well as diabetes, predisposing to vascular damage, and to conduct controlled systematic treatment of blood vessels.