Agriculture is called a special speciesactivities aimed at the cultivation, processing and production of products, as well as the provision of related services. Its main branches are livestock and plant growing. The welfare of its people depends to a large extent on the extent to which agriculture will be developed as a branch of production of a particular country.
The land in our country is very much and, it would seem,all prerequisites for the successful development of this area of agriculture are available. However, unfortunately, Russia is geographically located in such a way that the climatic conditions and various natural factors are limited in this respect. Crop production as a branch of agriculture in our country is quite a promising direction, however, only if new technologies and careful attitude to nature are used.
Only 35% of Russian lands are located ina moderate climate, not bad suitable for the cultivation of crops such as rye, wheat, oats, buckwheat, etc. Huge areas beyond the Arctic Circle for crop production are completely inappropriate. In addition, large areas in our country are taiga, where cultivation of land is a process, also associated with a huge number of difficulties.
At the moment, the main areas of agriculture in Russia include:
So, the main branches of specialization of ruralfarms in our country - livestock and agriculture. Territorially, Russia is located in several climatic zones. On crop production, and in particular on the diversity of the composition of cultivated crops, this cause has an impact primarily.
So, wheat, which is demanding of a thermal regime,Prefers nutritious loamy soil, enough drought-resistant crops, grown mainly in the steppe and forest steppe zones. The range of growth of less fastidious rye has broader boundaries. Barley is also distributed almost throughout the entire agricultural area of the country - from the cold northern regions to the arid southern.
Different types of industrial crops alsoare distributed in different zones. Sunflower, for example, grows very well in arid regions. The only thing - to get good yields, this culture should be planted only on sufficiently fertile soils. Grow sunflower mostly in the steppe and forest-steppe areas of the European part of the country. Sugar beet, on the contrary, is very demanding on the moisture regime. Therefore, it became widespread mainly in the central and western regions of the forest-steppe zone.
Vegetable growing includes a huge amountcultures, attributed to different biological species. Therefore, it is well developed practically on the entire agricultural territory of Russia. The most common cultures of open farming are cabbage, tomatoes, pumpkin, onions, beets and carrots. They are grown on an industrial scale most often in places where there is access to water - along the shores of lakes, rivers and reservoirs. The largest centers of vegetable growing were formed in the lower reaches of the Volga and the Don and in the North Caucasus.
Gardening is also an important direction in thisarea, like agriculture. The branches of agriculture connected with the cultivation of fruit and berry crops have also received great popularity in Russia, especially in its European part (the Volga region, the Krasnodar Territory). The largest variety of fruit crops is observed in the North Caucasus. A lot of gardens are also bred in Bashkortostan and Altai.
This branch is also for our countrypromising. Suffice it to recall that before the crisis of the last century, she was one of the leading. Characteristics of the agricultural industry in this case will be incomplete without a short digression into history. In the Soviet Union livestock breeding, and in particular cattle breeding, was developed very well. However, the economic crisis of subsequent years has had more than a negative impact on this direction. Only from 1991 to 2005 the number of cattle decreased from 54.7 to 21.4 million tons. According to the results of the same year 2005, livestock breeding in our country was considered unprofitable. Therefore, there was an increase in imports of this product.
However, for the time being, agriculture as athe branch of the economy (including livestock production) in our country can be considered more or less profitable. To some extent this is due to the development of private farms.
So, what are the main directions in this case represented by agriculture? The branches of agriculture in livestock are the following:
Industries and agricultureare connected with each other directly. This concerns, of course, including animal husbandry. Without a well-developed pig and cattle breeding, for example, the food industry is unlikely to be particularly profitable. If the state does not pay attention to such branches as fur farming and sheep breeding, the population of Russia will remain without its own warm things.
Placement and specialization of this directionare determined mainly by the availability of food for a particular group of animals. That is, livestock farming as a branch of agriculture, albeit in a smaller than plant growing, degree, but also depends on natural and climatic factors.
Intensive dairy cattle breeding in our countryis developed to a large extent in the European part - in the upper reaches of the Volga and the Dnieper. Basically it is the Moscow and Yaroslavl regions. This direction is also typical for the south of the St. Petersburg region. They are engaged in breeding cattle in other regions of the European part of the country, as well as in the southern regions of Siberia in the Urals. However, in this case we are talking mainly about the meat and dairy direction of cattle breeding. It is also distributed north of most of Siberia, but in these regions it is mostly extensive. Reindeer breeding has developed in the subpolar areas. Most cattle are bred in the Urals, in the Volga and Central regions, as well as in the North Caucasus.
Very widespread cultivation of smallThe cattle in our country was received in the Volga region, the North Caucasus, the Urals and Eastern Siberia. The sheepskin production is also well developed in the central regions of the European part of Russia. Pig breeding is practiced practically throughout the country. Somewhat less this direction is developed in the Far East.
In addition to climatic and weather conditions, the following factors can influence the development of livestock and crop production in any state:
All branches of agriculture in Russia, in addition toThe above factors directly depend on the environmental situation. Unfortunately, in our country a predatory attitude to the riches of nature and mismanagement led to a significant deterioration of the situation in this regard.
In the steppe and forest-steppe zones, the ecologicalThe balance is badly disturbed mainly due to wind and water erosion. Meanwhile, the experience of creating environmentally sustainable landscapes was laid back in the late 19th century by V. V. Dokuchaev in the Voronezh Region, in the tract of Kamennaya Step. Now here is the Institute of Agriculture. This experience should definitely be used today.
Violation of the ecological balance in the forest, forest and forest-taiga zones is usually associated with draining the marshes and uncontrolled deforestation.
Fortunately, at the moment the situation in ourthe country in this regard begins to change radically. The most important task of the recently created science - the economics of nature management - is not only the assessment of the state of the environment in the light of its possible use, but also the forecasting of the development of ecological systems, attempts to foresee the future and the ability to manage them today. Of course, such an approach to the main branches of agriculture will have more than a beneficial effect.
The main methods of greening the modernland use at the moment are the preservation of biological organisms and the creation of natural environmentally friendly fertilizers based on fungi, bacteria and algae. Science, engaged in biology of humus, is tomorrow's day of agriculture.
The latest developments in this area are being introduced inall branches of agriculture in Russia today. For example, the Krasnodar region uses non-herbicidal technologies for the production of rice and corn. In some farms in the Omsk region, the refusal to use pesticides and the use of new farming technologies led to a significant increase in yields.
To new techniques can be attributed, for example:
To the plans, awaiting implementation in the near future,one can also include the introduction of comprehensive and comprehensive monitoring of the natural environment. That is, monitoring her reaction to human economic activity and taking appropriate measures in advance. Of course, this will have a positive impact on agriculture. The branches of agriculture - livestock and crop production - will become profitable and profitable.
Reviving livestock and crop productionRussia, of course, should pay attention to the experience of those states where these industries are developed very well. Germany is often cited as an example. At present, much attention is paid to the development of agriculture in this country. The profitability of all its structures is largely influenced by an impeccable and maximally thought-out organization, as well as the rational and careful use of natural resources.
In the central regions of Germany and in the south of thiscountries producing agricultural products are mainly employed by small farm owners. This situation is the reason for the emergence of healthy competition, a powerful incentive to introduce the latest techniques. The branches of German agriculture - livestock and plant growing - bring huge profits to this country.
At us in the country an opportunity of realizationmost projects and the development of new technologies in livestock and agriculture will largely depend on the perfection of the legislative framework in the near future. Reasonable management of the economy and conservation of natural resources should become the priority tasks of the state. Perhaps in the future the structure of the Russian agriculture industry will resemble the German one. However, at the moment the main share of food products in our country is produced by rather large agricultural organizations.